A Series of Searchable Texts on Earthworm Biodiversity, Ecology and Systematics from Various Regions of the World
– 3rd Edition (2008) December, 2008
Compiled by Robert J. Blakemore1
General Editors of prior Bio-Eco COE Editions: Drs Masamichi T. Ito2, Nobuhiro Kaneko2
Ecology Research Group,
“The importance of taxonomy is clearly recognized by the majority of scientists and without reliable taxonomy, ecological studies are irrelevant.” Dominguez, J. et al. (2005).
In response to the ‘Biodiversity Crisis’ and the ‘Taxonomic Impediment’, the aim of this database is to make available, online, information about ecology and taxonomy of diverse groups of megadrile earthworms, information that is currently scattered, outdated, or otherwise unavailable. This goal complements those advocated by groups such as Barcode (BOLD), BioNet, CBD (GTI), Diversitas, Encyclopedia-of-Life (EoL), GBIF, IUCN/SSG, Tree-of-Life (ToL), Wikispecies, ZipcodeZoo, , etc. Presentation is a series of discrete chapters in various formats as originally prepared. Several species checklists (partially annotated) provide an invaluable resource for young researchers needing to construct comprehensive regional faunal lists and for natural resource managers or concerned scientists wishing to research answers to simple questions as:
“What is the correct and current name of this species?”
“How’s our regional biodiversity?”
“Can I add yet another new species name to this group without a full inventory?”
Unfortunately, the present ‘chaotic’ state of consensus at almost each taxonomic rank is a disservice resulting in frequent discrepancies for the same data/taxa in different places depending upon an author’s preference, or age and accessibility of publications. Two features characterize the modern information arena: 1/. Increasing availability of scientific papers online and 2/. Limited “shelf-life” of data on static websites plus the short life-expectancy of many of these sites themselves.
The current work, then, is merely a foundation or, if you wish, a springboard from which to enhance our current and common knowledge. Data can be revised and expanded as reliable and solid information accrues. In the meantime, any comments, contributions, or improvements on the chapters would be appreciated, and hopefully these can be incorporated in periodic (annual?) and public updates. With concerted effort, inventories of species diversity for all regions may be imminently achievable.
This Online Edition enhances the original CD publications by Blakemore (2005, 2006a,b)* which, however, still hold priority for new taxonomic names and changes in those document and merely reviewed herein. In compliance with ICZN (1999: Article 8) for official publication, identical versions of the original CD: Blakemore (2005) June, 2005, were lodged, at least at the Institutions named below: those bolded received the 2nd Edition CD: Blakemore (2006a) in March, 2006, and those underlined received the CD Supplement to this: Blakemore (2006b) in August, 2006:-
ABRS Canberra, ACT; Museum of Natural History, London; Library of Congress, and Smithsonian Institute, Washington DC; Te Papa Tongarewa Wellington, NZ; Yokohama National University Library, Japan; Stockholm Museum of Natural History; The Australian Museum, Sydney; Queen Victoria Museum, Launceston; Hungarian Academy of Sciences Eötvös Loránd University, Budapest, and in addition to South Africa & Natal Museum, Pietermaritzburg; Jagiellonian University, Krakow and South Australian Museum, Adelaide.
It is intended also to send regular updated copies to Zoological Record, BIOSIS, UK.
* Previous versions of the various Chapter headings in:
Blakemore, R.J. (2005). A
Series of Searchable Texts on Earthworm Biodiversity, Ecology and Systematics
from Various Regions of the World.
Eds.: N. Kaneko & M.T. Ito. COE Soil Ecology Research Group,
Blakemore, R.J. (2006a).
A Series of Searchable Texts on Earthworm Biodiversity, Ecology and
Systematics from Various Regions of the World –
2nd Edition (2006). Eds.:
N. Kaneko & M.T. Ito. COE Soil Ecology Research Group,
Blakemore, R.J. (2007). A
Series of Searchable Texts on Earthworm Biodiversity, Ecology and Systematics
from Various Regions of the World - 2nd
Edition Supplement. Eds.: N. Kaneko & M.T. Ito. COE Soil Ecology
Current citation of the various Chapter Headings in:
Blakemore, R.J. (2008). A Series of Searchable Texts on Earthworm Biodiversity, Ecology and Systematics from Various Regions of the World – 3nd Edition. [Online at http://www.annelida.net/earthworm. Today’s date].
Regions covered shown on MAP (further all Asiatic pheretimoids, all holarctic lumbricids, all octochaetids from Indo-Australasia including “amphiatlantic” genera, plus all the neotropical exxids are also listed).
Inspiration from Bill Watterson’s Calvin and Hobbes’ “There’s Treasure Everywhere” is acknowledged here.
An answer to the question: “Why on Earth Study Worms?” is proffered - here.
Table of Contents (Chapter Headings):
1. Blakemore, R.J. (1994). “Earthworms
[With description of >75 spp and reports of
laboratory and glasshouse screening trials of 30 of these with two medium-scale
field experiments using a dozen candidate species. Original copies are lodged in libraries of
2. Blakemore, R.J. (1995a). Curatorial register of Australian National Earthworm Collection specimens lodged in ANIC, Canberra, as compiled while a visiting Research Scientist 1994/5.
3. Blakemore, R.J. (1995b). “The use of earthworms for bioconversion of sewage sludge and municipal waste – a synopsis of relevant literature”. Report commissioned by Gerry Gillespie of the ACT Dept. of Urban Services, Canberra, Australia. November, 1995. Pp. 15.
4. Blakemore, R.J. (1999). Diversity of exotic earthworms in
5. Blakemore, R.J.
(2000). Ecology of Earthworms under the ‘Haughley Experiment’ of Organic and Conventional Management
Regimes. BAH, 18(2):
141-159. [Derived from author’s BSc
Hons. thesis at Westminster Uni.,
Vermicology I - Ecological considerations of the earthworms species in vermiculture.
Vermicology II - The potential, products and problems of vermiculture.
‘Dances with worms’ - Biology, ecology, taxonomy and vermicomposting.
10. A revised checklist of Family Exxidae Blakemore, 2000 (Annelida : Oligochaeta).
11. A list of valid, invalid and synonymous names of Criodriloidea and Lumbricoidea [Annelida: Oligochaeta: Criodrilidae (inc. Biwadrilidae), Sparganophilidae, Ailoscolecidae (inc. Komarekionidae), Hormogastridae, Lumbricidae, Lutodrilidae].
11a. Replacement of Reynoldsia Qiu & Bouché, 1998 (preocc.) with Norealidys Blakemore, 2008 (Oligochaeta : Lumbricidae) – although Csuzdi (pers. comm. & http://earthworm.uw.hu/) lists the type, Reynoldsia andaluciana Qiu & Bouché, 1998 as a synonym of Eiseniella neapolitana (Örley, 1885) and, therefore, the genus enters synonymy too.
12. An updated checklist of pheretimoids (e.g. Amynthas, Duplodicodrilus, Metaphire, Pheretima, Polypheretima, etc.) after Blakemore (2004, 2005, 2006, 2007).
13a. Copy of Dr R. Horst (1883) describing species
13b. Helodrilus hachiojii Blakemore, 2007
(Lumbricidae) description from
14. A checklist of Chilean earthworms after Sielfeld (2002), Zicsi (2004) and Zicsi & Csuzdi (2007).
15a. Delta computer guide to Tasmanian Species , compressed into one 100 Mb Zip file, with my original ABRS application for funding of this project here and funds transfer letter here (as released under parliamentary privilege being, most incredibly, the subject of questions listed in Hansard). The Delta installation is required. See Delta web site for information on Delta and to download the program.
15c. Appendix: Earthworms from Tasmanian Wilderness WHA.
15f. Complete, comprehensive list of Tasmanian type specimens and museum materials examined.
15g. Eophila eti Blakemore, 2008 (Annelida: Lumbricidae) Tasmanian description and distribution.
Checklist of earthworms of
17. Review of Southern Ocean, South Atlantic and Subantarctic species after Lee (1994).
18. Review of Pacific/Oceania earthworms updated from Lee (1981) and Easton (1984).
19. Checklist of USSR/Russian Federation taxa updated from Perel (1979, 1997).
20. Checklist of Myanmar taxa updated from Gates’ (1972): “Burmese Earthworms”.
21. A review of New Zealand earthworms after Lee’s (1959): “Earthworm Fauna of N.Z.”.
22. Checklist of Thailand taxa updated from Gates’ (1939): “Thai Earthworms”.
23. A definitive checklist of Australian earthworms (Annelida, Oligochaeta: Moniligastridae, Ocnerodrilidae, Acanthodrilidae, Octochaetidae, Benhamiinae, Exxidae?, Megascolecidae, Glossoscolecidae, Lumbricidae, Eudrilidae).
24. Checklist of
28. Checklist of Korean earthworms (original).
29. Tables of Hawaiian and Puerto Rican earthworm species (original).
31. Blakemore, R.J. (2000, 2006). New species of the
earthworm genus Anisochaeta from
32. Blakemore, R.J. (2000, 2006). Native earthworms
(Oligochaeta) from southeastern
33. Blakemore, R.J. (2001). Finding Fletcher’s Giant Worms. Eucryphia 54: 5-6 (July, 2001).
34. Microbes and (vermi-)composting; author’s presentation to Australian Worm Growers’ Association (AWGA) at Goulburn, NSW in 2000.
35. VERMALCHEMY: ecological economics and taxonomy of vermicomposting - summary of author’s EPA presentation (Melbourne, Victoria, 9th March, 2001).
37. List of earthworms from Cambodia, Laos, and Vietnam (Excel spreadsheet) compiled by R.J. Blakemore with help from Dr Nguyen Duc Anh, Tran Triet and Khamla Inkhavilay.
37a. Notes on Amynthas mekongianus (Cognetti, 1922) – one of World’s longest worm species.
37b. Blakemore et al. (2007): Megascolex (Promegascolex) mekongianus Cognetti, 1922: its extent, ecology and allocation to Amynthas (Oligochaeta: Megascolecidae). Opuscula Zoologica. 36: 19-30 (Aug. 2007).
38. Indian and Sri Lankan earthworms (original) compiled by R.J. Blakemore with some advice from Dr J. M. Julka via Dr. B.K. Senapati.
38a. Earthworms of Tamil Nadu, S. India by R.J. Blakemore with help for P. Kathireswari.
39. Chinese earthworms from mainland and Hainan (original) compiled by R.J. Blakemore with help from Dr Jian Huang and Drs Jian-Ping Qiu and Wei-Xin Zhang.
40. Excel list of Indonesian earthworms by R.J. Blakemore with help from Hari Nugroho.
41. Earthworms from
Earthworms from Greenland and
43. Scandinavian earthworms (original).
44. Galapagos Islands Earthworms (original).
45. Mexican Earthworms compiled by R.J. Blakemore with help from Drs G. Brown and C. Fragoso.
46. Cuban Earthworms (original) compiled by R.J. Blakemore after Rodriguez (2004).
47. List of Argentinean earthworms (original from Blakemore, 2005) with help for Cathy Mischis.
48. Publications from Yokohama National Uni COE earthworm projects by R.J. Blakemore.
Blakemore et al. (2007): Alien earthworms in the Asia/Pacific region with a checklist of species
and the first records of Eukerria
saltensis (Oligochaeta : Ocnerodrilidae) and Eiseniella tetraedra (Lumbricidae) from
48b. Blakemore, R.J. & Paoletti, M, (2006). Australian Earthworms as a Natural Agroecological Resource. Annals of Arid Zone. 45 (3/4): 309-330. [Authors’ pdf draft].
49. Glossary of Earthworm terms, conventions and abbrvs. (from Blakemore, 2002, 2006).
50. Michaelsen, W. (1900): Das Tierreich. 10: Vermes, Oligochaeta. Friedländer & Sohn, Berlin. Pp. XXIX+575, figs. 1-13.*
*[I hope soon to scan my annotated copy of the book, originally belonging to Sir William Blaxland Benham (1860-1950) that was passed on to Dr Ken Lee (1927-2007) when he started his N.Z. studies in the 1940’s and which Dr Lee very kindly handed down to me when I visited him and our mutual colleague, John Buckerfield, in Adelaide in 1999].
Acknowledgements and Dedication
for CD publications, but not all the initial work, was by the 21stCentury
COE (Centre-Of-Excellence) Program “Environmental Risk Management for
Bio/Eco-Systems” at Yokohama National University (YNU) under the auspices
of Mombusho the Ministry of Education, etc. of
Dedication is to the foremost earthworm eco-taxonomist and mentor Dr Ken Lee (1927-2007).
[Earlier Disclaimer and Licence Agreement] [End of Earthworm Series ToC].