Örsted, Anders Sandöe 1843. "Grönlands Annulata
Dorsibranchiata." Kongelige Videnskabernes Selskabs naturvidenskabelige
og mathematiske Afhandlinger X Deel, København. Vol. 10: 155-216, pls. I-VIII.
[SK and LH annotations are those of the translator (Sven Karell), and of Leslie Harris (Los Angeles County Museum of Natural History), who kindly made the translation available in this digital form. It was originally done for Olga Hartman, and the papers are partially typed & partially handwritten by her, with a note on the top that reads "translation by Sven Karell 1937" - GBR.]
I. Introductory Remarks
(p. 155) Our knowledge of the northern fauna was raised to a considerable
height toward the end of the last century by the important work
of O. F. Mueller and C. Fabricius. After that the development
of science in this field came to a comparative standstill. Our
literature therefore does not offer any other works in reference
to the scale worms of Greenland than those we owe to Fabricius.
This writer in the Writings of the Society for Natural History
the 5th edition 1799 and in Schriften der Berl. naturf. Freunde
VI Band minutely described and pictured some of the same species
which are described in his fauna Groenlandica.
The explorers which later travelled to the northern country have
not given any contribution to this section of the fauna of Greenland.
In the systematic works which are written about the scale worms
by Blainville (Diction. d. scien. natur. arctic. vers.), by Savigny
(Systeme des annelides), and by Audouin and Milne Edwards (Classification
des Annelides et cet.) the species from Greenland are handled
only according to the old descriptions.
(p. 156) It was with great interest I welcomed this opportunity
which offered itself to me to correct the old descriptions and
to increase this part of our knowledge of Greenland's fauna with
descriptions of new species. Much more so when I already for
a longer period had been occupied with studying the Danish scale
worms. Both of these countries' faunae supplement and clarify
each other. The materials which are the basis of this treatise
have long ago been sent from various points of Greenland's coast.
Most of it is to be credited to Captain-Lieutenant Kollbäll
whose sacrifising endeavors to increase our knowledge of Greenland's
fauna cannot be praised enough, and to the botanist F. Uahl.
Both the descriptions and the drawings are made after specimens
preserved in spirits. Animals so kept change both in color and
in form, so that there will yet be many errors to correct, and
additions to make for him who has leisure to examine these animals
alive. When several of the few species I had at hand were somewhat
damaged I have had very little grounds to give the description
any high degree of detail, as I did not want to describe as characteristics
of a species what was only a variational trait.
(p. 157) There is not space here to give an inclusive discussion
of the terminology which has been used in the description of the
scale worms, but I am briefly going to explain as much as is necessary
to make this treatise more eaily understood. Several of the terms
that have been used seem to me so inappropriate that I could not
accommodate myself for their use, and I had to invent some new
Danish ones instead.
There are three kinds of head-appendages: Feelers (Tentacula)
are the projections, which are situated on the foremost part of
the head. Thus on the Nereis there are two (fig. 53),
on Lepidonote three (fig. 10-11), and in Phyllodoce
four (fig. 21). The feelers have often been called the inner
feelers to distinguish them from the gropers (Palpi) which
have been called the outer feelers. But these organs are different
from the others in form, position, and function and should have
another name. Mueller already realized that and called them "Dutten"
(Von Würm. p. 121). They are much thicker than the feelers,
are often composed of two divisions separated by a joint, project
from the edge of the mouth and serve as a help to put the food
into the mouth. The name gropers therefore the most appropriate.
They are very strongly developed (fig. 50-51, 53-54) in Nereis.
The feet threads (Cirri tentaculares) are the threadlike
bodies which proceed from the base of the head and may be taken
as counterparts of cirri on the rings of other parts of the body.
In respect to their nature therefore they stand between the
cirri and the tentacula. On Lepidonote two
are (combined) united on a common baseline (joint) (fig. 10-11),
on Phyllodoce there are four on each side (fig. 21), and
on Nereis also four, of which each is equipped with its
baseline (fig. 50-51, 53-54). On Polybostrichus there
are five in a row (fig. 62).
The neckring (Segmentum postoccipitale) is the first ring
after the head. It is often different from the others in that
it lacks all the supplements which the others have (fig. 50-51,
(p. 158) Trunk projections (as exertile) is called the mouth on
this class of scaleworms, because it has the quality of being
able to stretch the mouthopening, often very far so that it takes
the form of a trunk, by which name it has been called until now.
It consists of an anterior part (fig. 22a and fig. 91-92a), which
is made up of a rather thin membrane, and a posterior part (fig.
22b and fig. 91-92b), the actual mouth-cavity, which surrounds
the proboscis , if they are present, and
is composed of a very thick, strong muscle tissue. The anterior,
thinner part serves only to be elongated around the posterior
one when it is thrust out of the mouthopening (fig. 21 and fig.
These supplements belong to the rings of the body:
The fins (Pinnae) are the knotlike elongations on which
needles and groups of bristles are fastened. They are rudimentary
feet, and are in the same relation to the feet of insects as the
fishes paired fins are to the organs of motions in mammals. Just
as locomotion with the fishes is not so much brought about with
the fins as with the tail so here too it is the whole body mainly
which brings about the motion we call swim while the fins are
used when they creep along slowly. Heretofore these organs have
been called many different names such as feet, pedes, rames,
ruder, rami. This last name, rami, most
likely arose from an incorrect translation of the French rames
and should rather be remi. The French rame can
mean both the Latin ramus, a branch, or remus, an
oar. If these organs, about which these names have been used,
should be compared with one of the above things it would look
more like the oar than the branch. If any of the earlier used
names should be retained, it should be feet, pedes, but
as these animals' organs of locomotion (p. 159) show a much better
analogy with the fishes fins than with higher quadruped's or biped's
feet, and when the scaleworms in many other respects stand in
the same relation to higher jointed animals as the fishes do to
the higher footed animals so must the name fins surely be considered
the most appropriate. If someone protests that this name may
give occasion to draw an incorrect analogy when the fins of fishes
also appear singly and do not correspond to the limbs in the higher
animals in that respect, one may reply that the name fins, pinnae,
pennae originally (and undeniably most correct) only described
the true organs of locomotion, that the Romans obtained this from
an analogy with the birds' wings, which also were called pinnae
or pennae, and that this name ought not to be used on other
organs than those existing in pairs, like backfins, Kailfins (sic),
etc., because by the word fins one means the paired fins, the
real organs of locomotion.
One can often separate an upper fin (pinna superior, p.
dorsalis) which sits closest the flat back and a lower
fin (pinna inferior, p. ventralis fig. 13, 71). They are
often somewhat fused together (fig. 93), and then the presence
of one or two needles will decide if one should consider it one
or two fins, for each fin is usually equipped with one needle.
The bristles are either simple or complex. Of the simple bristles these are noticed:
hairformed bristles (Setae capillares, fig. 71, 101),
awlshaped bristles (Setae subulatae, fig. 111),
hollow (?) bristles (Setae canaliculatae, fig. 15b, 17),
hookformed bristles (Setae uncinatae, fig. 41b),
forked bristles (Setae furcatae, fig. 27).
(p. 160) The complex bristles are these:
thorned bristles (Setae spinosae, fig. 70),
knifeshaped bristles (Setae cultratae, fig. 69),
sickleformed bristles (Setae falcatae, fig. 52).
The back-filament (Cirrus dorsalis s. superior),
is the thread-like body, which almost always is present at the
base of the upper fin, and ventral-filament (Cirrus ventralis
s. inferior), is the name given to the similar organ which
proceeds from the base of the lower fin.
I have called such organs, which have such a structure that they may be supposed to serve as organs of respiration, Gills (Branchiae). They are always more or less placed on the side of the body, in the proximity of or altogether connected with the fins, or on the back. These organs have not heretofore been called gills, except with the kind where the gills are very plainly recognized (as with Amphinome, Arenicola, etc.). Otherwise they have been given various names corresponding to their forms. Thus it has been called squamae or elytra on the Aphroditaceae. These names were brought into use by Savigny when he thought he found an analogy between these organs and wing-coverings on insects, an analogy which certainly may be altogether rejected. Audouin and Milne Edwards called it leaflike cirri in Phyllodoce, despite the fact that they themselves indicate that the organs do not have the form of cirri and that they have a strucutre which gives no doubt but that they serve as organs of respiration. Why not much rather call them gills?
They are called cirri in Cirratulus, but are very manifestly threadlike gills. Despite the fact that there certainly are related groups where it is difficult and perhaps impossible to draw any sharp line between gills, cirri, and fins, because these
(p. 161) organs often fuse together (for instance with Nereis,
Glycera, and several others), I believe that one ought
to give as a principle that everywhere where organs exist, even
if only rudimentary ones, which according to their structure,
position, and form, etc., could be taken as identical with the
gills on more developed forms, they ought to be called gills even
though the respiratory function is just as much confined to other
parts of the body. This opinion seems not to be held by the famous
French writers, Audouin & Milne Edwards.
There remains yet to give an account of why the name dorsibranchiata was used for scaleworms of this class. The name as known as introduced by Cuvier and which we shall try to reintroduce here instead of Annulata errantia. This name which was first brought into use by Audouin and Milne Edwards was later commonly adopted. If one regards the main reason upon which these authors supported their name one will find that it does not have sufficient validity. They assert, that the organs which sit along the back, and on whose function as gills Cuvier supported his name dorsibranchiata, often only coincide with gills in form and position, but that they do not function as gills any more than do many other parts of the body; (loc. cit. p. 2) in other words that they are rudimentary gills. On the other hand, they did
(p. 162) not deny that all the higher forms of the different
families are equipped with plainly developed gills and that hardly,
in respect to the position of these organs, do they differ anything
from the Tubiculae, on which the gills are developed only
on the front part of the body. Hence it should be clear, that
as the repetition of uniform organs in the long run is the characteristic
which usually distinguishes the scaleworms, it becomes the characteristic
for this class that the repetition not only recurs in the same
system of organs as in the other classes but just in one system,
namely the respiratory system. In this class then is found the
most complete expression for the worms, since the repetition here
goes farther than in any other class. That the gills are rudimentary
or even disappearing in some kinds of these worms cannot be any
reason for denying that this class has its most important characteristic
in the position of its gills. And as Cuvier obtained his name
from these considerations, there will be no reason to reject his
(p. 163) II. Description of existing species of Annulata
Dorsibranchiata in Greenland
The first family: Aphroditaceae Gen. Polynoe Autorum
The way in which genus Polynoe has been classified by Savigny and later by Audouin and Milne Edwards it contains species which are so different in their structure that they could very well be put in three different genera which also could be divided up into several subgenera. These three genera can be described in the following way.
I. Branchiae cum cirris alternates, setae simplices
Gen. Lepidonote (Leach) Orsd.
Corpus oblongum, segmenta 24-40, branchiarum paria 12-15 dorsum totum obtegentium, pinnae discretae; duo cirri inferiores, setae canaliculatae.
Gen. Polynoe (Sav.) Orsd.
Corpus lineare, segmenta 70-100, branchiarum paria 15-40, minutissimarum maximam dorsi partem mudam relinquentium; pinna utraque in unum connata, cirrus inferior unicus, setae canaliculatae.
II. Branchiae in omnibus segmentis (paucis ex posterioribus
exceptis), magnam dorsi partem nudam relinquentes, cirri nulli,
setae pinnae superioris simplices, inferioris compositae.
(p. 164) Genus Pholoe Johnston?
If one could rely on the accuracy of Johnston's account and picture
of Pholoe inornata, then neither Aphrodita minuta
nor another new species, that I have found on the coasts of Denmark,
could be classified in the genus Pholoe; for while this
genus is characterized by two eyes, five feelers, and gills on
every other ring, the above described species have gills on all
rings, and at least one of them four eyes and six feelers. But
I have learned from experience that Johnston's drawings and descriptions
are not accurate (see, for instance, the picture of Polynoe
cirrata, Annals of nat. Hist. Vol. II, Tab. 22). For the
present therefore I have thought it best to refer these species
to the genus Pholoe.
Lepidonote scabra Orsd. fig. 2, 7, 10, 12-13, 17-18
Aphrodita scabra Fauna groenl. p. 311
Polynoe scabra Sav.
Corpore posticam partem versus angustiore, segmentis 38-39, capite subpentagono antice obtruso postice truncato, appendicibus capitis et cirris dense pilosis, branchiarum scaberrimarum paribus quindecim, setis valde porrectis nec non divergentibus, in pinna inferiore apice curvatis nec uncinatis.
This beautiful and easily recognized species sometimes reaches
a length of about 2 1/2 inches and a width of 8-9 lines (p. 165)
(fig. 2). The latter part of the body is always smaller than
the foremost, although in some specimens this difference is rather
slight. Of the 38-39 rings the latter are always much shorter
than the former. The gills, with the exception of the 3 first
pairs, on the right side cover with the inner edge those on the
left side. The first pairs of gills are oval and much smaller
than the middle ones, which are formed like kidneys (fig. 7).
They are very rough because they are sprinkled over with dark
brown, hard knots which increase in size toward the back edge
of the ring, where they take the form of cylindrical projections
which are more or less split in the end.
The head (fig. 10) is almost in the form of a pentagon, and is
equipped with four round rather large eyes. The middle feeler
has about the same form and length as the feelthreads (sic).
They are all a little shorter than the gropers and are like these
lightly clad with long hairs. The two outer short feelers, on
the other hand, are rather smooth.
The filaments on the back have the same form and size as the middle
feeler, but are equipped with longer hairs. The uppermost fin
is short and cut off. The lower fin is much longer. It is cut
off from the sides toward the middle so that it is longest in
the middle, (fig. 13). On the side which is turned toward the
head it is more obliquely cut off so that it is longer above (fig.
12). The bristles in the upper fin are alike, somewhat convex
on the one side and provided with 60-70 toothed cross-stripes
(fig. 18). They are very stiff and spread out from each other,
so that they lift the scales outer edge up somewhat. In the lower
fin the bristles (fig. 17) are much longer, crooked at the end,
and a little below the curve they are provided with toothed cross-stripes
which do not go as far down as to the middle of the bristle.
The outer filament of the belly is 2/3 the length of the fin nearest
the belly, the inner one is not half as long (fig. 13).
With respect to its color and habit it is perhaps best to let Fabricius speak as he has seen it alive:
(p. 166) Color sordide viridis, abdomine albo nitante, linea
longitudinali rubra. Habitat in locis profundis maris sub lapidibus,
Few specimens are sent from Godthaab.
Lepidonote cirrata Orsd. fig. 1, 5, 6, 11,
Aphrodita cirrata Faun. groenl. p. 30.
Flache Aphrodite Mül. Von Würm. p. 180 Tab. III.
Aphrodita violaca Acta nidr p. 366.
Polynoe cirrata Sav.
Corpore utrinque fere aequaliter obtuso, segmentis 35-36, capite
pentagono antice in prominentias duas acuminatas producto, appendicibus
capitis et cirris glabris, branchiarum laevium paribus quindecim,
setis prominulis approximatis, in pinna inferiore uncinatis.
The length is about 2 1/2 to 3 inches, the width at the middle
8 lines. The gills are very glistening and smooth. They have
the form of a kidney on the middle segments (fig. 5-6). They
vary much in color; thus they do not have one uniform shade but
run through all shades of green, brown, blue, or black, or they
have different colors, such as brown with a lighter spot in the
center or light-grey with a black edge (fig. 6). The variety,
which has blue gills, has been classified as a new species, Aphrodita
violacea Strom l.c. The 12 former pairs of gills sit alternatingly
with the dorsal filaments, the 13th pair sit on the 27th segment,
the 14th pair on the 30th segment, and the 15th pair coveres the
5 and 6 last segments.
The head is almost pentagonal (fig. 11), it is split in a pointed
cut in the front so that the head is divided into two pointed
parts. The color of the specimens preserved in spirits is bright
red. One pair of eyes sit in the corners farthest back on (p.
167) the head, the other pair one on each outer side of the two
split parts of the head. The middle feeler and feelthreads have
the same form and size. They have all a dark spot on the back
and front side of the thicker part. The spot can be seen toward
the end of the thick part. The other feelers have about half
the length of the middle ones. The gropers are one third as long
as the feelthreads. All these supplements of the head are smooth
and without hairs.
The fins have about the same form as in the preceeding species.
The dorsal fin is omewhat shorter, while the ventral fin is a
little longer (fig. 14), but it is not always as pointed as the
figure shows. The bristles in the dorsal fins are a little curved,
and are provided with a row of fine teeth on the upper part.
The row does not extend altogether out to the end (fig. 16a).
They are much longer in the ventral fin, almost alike, a little
above the middle they are widened, and provided with toothed cross-stripes
and a little hook at the end (fig. 16b). The dorsal filaments
have the same form and size as the middle feelers. Behind the
dorsal feelers is a cylindrical style Papil (?), which may be
regarded as a rudimentary gill. The outer ventral filament has
the same length as the ventral fins and is pointed, the inner
filament is hardly half as long and rounded. The tail filaments
are somewhat longer than the dorsal filaments.
When O. Fabricius reports: "Habitat frequentissemo ad litora maris inter lapides, testaceae, radices fucorum, in fundo limosa et alibi. Et sieus Nereis verrucosa inter Nereides, sic haec inter aphroditas vulgatissima," then I can add to this that all this holds with respect to the existence of this species in Danish waters, but that it here never reaches the size as it does on Greenland's coasts.
Specimens have been sent from several points on the entire coast
(p. 168) Lepidonote punctata Orsd.
Polynoe punctata Sav.
Aphrodita punctata Faun. groenl. Zool. Dan. 3, p. 25.
Aphrodita squamata Lin.
Vix Polynoe squamata Aud. et Edw.
Corpore oblongo utringque aequaliter obtuso, segmentis 25,
tentaculo medio palpis et cirris tentacularibus duobus maximis
ferme ejusdem longitudinis glabris, capite postice exciso, branchiarum
scabriuscularum paribus 12, setis pinnae superioris vix prominulis,
pinnae inferioris porrectis apiceum versus parum serratis curvatis.
Of this species I have not had any specimens from Greenland's
coasts, but O. Fabricius reports that it is rarissimia there.
It exists in several places on our coasts, for instance, between
Frederikshavn and Skagen it is very abundant. When there is not
doubt about that this species is Müller's and Fabricius'
Aphrodita punctata and Linne's A. squamata, it will
be reasonable that is different from the species which is described
from the coasts of France as Polynoe squamata and which
is supposed to be identical with Aphrodita punctata Mül.
and Fabr. This species does not have clubformed but pointed gropers
which are not longer than the longest of the feelthreads, while
with Polynoe squamata Aud. and Edw. they are reported to
be twice as long.
Gen. Pholoe Johnston
Pholoe (?) minuta Orsd. fig. 3, 4,
8, 9, 16.
Aphrodita minuta O. Fabr. Fauna. groenl. p. 314.
Segmentis 56--58, branchiarum paribus 43, capite ? utraque
pinnae ferme in unam coadunata, setis rami superioris subulatis
minutissimis, curvatis, rami inferioris multo longioribus rectis
falcatis, cirris nullis.
The length is hardly 8 lines, the width 1 1/3 lines. It has 56-58
segments, 43 pairs of gills which as placed one pair on each segment
with exception of the last which covers several segments.
The head was so damaged on the few specimens which were sent down
of this species that I cannot describe its head or its supplements.
The fins (fig. 9) are almost grown together to one, although a
little separated in the end. Both the dorsal filament and the
ventral are lacking. The bristles (fig. 16) are very small in
the dorsal fins, hairlike, curved, and pointed (a), in the ventral
fin they are much larger, alike and sickle-formed (b).
The gills are kidney shaped and smooth, with a lighter oval spot
in the middle and a simple row hair, which are far apart, on the
outer and latter edge (fig. 8). The color is dirty green.
With respect to its existence Fabricius reports: Habitat in
fundo argilloso maris procul a littore, minus frequens. Few
specimens are sent down from Godthaab.
(p. 170) 2nd Family. Amphinomaceae
Gen. Euphrosyna (sic) Sav.
Euphrosyna borfalis (sic) Örsd. fig. 23-27
Corpore ovato-oblongo flavescente; segmentis 26-27, prominente
*) capitis parte elongato-ovali, tenteculo unico semigloboso,
branchiis 9-10 bi-tripartitis, cirro dorsali nullo.
The length is 10 lines and the width 4-5 lines. The back is rather
arched and almost entirely covered by dorsal fin's numerous bristles
and gills, so that only a stripe in the middle is bare. It is
a little smaller in back tha in front (fig. 25).
The projecting part of the head (fig. 23b) is extended oval; in
front of this sits a couple of large, black eyes, and before these
a very short globular feeler (a). The mouth opening is seen on
the flat, ventral side as a little cross-split between the 3rd
and 4th sgments. Before the mouth are two oval papillae (fig.
The dorsal fins are very long, when it reaches, in form of a little
fold in the skin, almost to the middle of the dorsal side (fig.
26a). The ventral fins, on the other hand are very short (b).
In these the bristles are very lightly collected, while they
are rather far apart in the dorsal fins. The bristles are alike
and forked (fig. 27). Of the 9-10 gills the most are divided
into three parts, others into two or only simple. The ventral
filament (c) has the same length as the gills.
The color of the specimens kept in spirits is pale yellow, somewhat
darker on the flat ventral side.
(p. 171) Few specimens are sent down from Godthaab.
Since this is the northernmost representative of this genus, which
otherwise inhabits the warm seas, I thought that "borealis"
was a fitting name for this species. It is easily separated from
Euphrosyna myrtosa, which is the species nearest related to
it, by the absence of dorsal filaments and by the form of the
gills, which do not end in oval leaves but are threadlike.
Remarks. This genus, whose entire organization is so extraordinarily
peculiar, gives a proof that the cirri in scaleworms physiologically
considered are not different from the gills; for the gills which
are split are altogether identical in structure to cirri. Cirri
should be looked on as rudimentary gills.
*) With this is understood the part, which Savigy and Audouin
& Edwards called carunculus. It is clear that it is nothing
else but the projection part of the head and should not have its
3rd Family. Euniceae.
Gen. Onuphis Aud. & Edw.
Charact. gener. emendatus.
Caput appendicibus tentacularibus septem, quatuor antice, tribus
in media superficie, instructum. Segmenta duo anteriora longitudine
et forma pinnarum et setarnm (sic) a sequentibus valde discrepantia
et branchiarum loco cirro superiore et inferiore praedita, setis
(vel pitius aciculis) validis partim rectis partim apice curvatis.
In ceteris segmentis cirri inferioris loco mamilla semiglobosa;
setae triformes, aliis gracilioribus curvatis acuminatis, aliis
minutissimis rectis apcie infundibuliformibus.
Heretofore the most peculiar characteristic of the genus Onuphis
has not been held out as a characteristic, namely those (p. 172)
segments which differ from the others very prominently. By
the form and position of the fins and the quality of the bristles
it is apparent that they help in seizing the food and lead it
into the mouth, and are in that a little reminiscent of the condition
so characteristic of the crustaceae in their foremost organs of
locomotion. It may also be regarded as an important characteristic
that there are four kinds of bristles of very different form.
Such a peculiar organization is most likely a sign of a very
peculiar mode of living of the animal.
Onuphis Eschrichtii Örsd. fig. 33-41, 45.
Corpore supra convexo subtus plano, segmentis 50-60, stria
transversa fusca in quoque segmento, cirris postoccipitalibus
longitudineum capitis aequantibus, pinnis (in segmentis duobus
primis exeptis) brevissimis, branchiis bipartitit\s basi pinnarum
The body consists of 50-60 rings, which, with the exception of
the two front rings which are much elongated, all are of about
the same length. The pipe (fig. 45) consists of a strong not
quite transparent membrance which is covered with larger or smaller
pieces of conchylishells.
The head is almost quadratic (fig. 33-34). The two foremost of
the 7 feelerlike appendices (a) are cut off very short. The ones
following them (b) have about half the length of the 3 (c) which
are situated in the middle of the head. At the base of the outer
ones of these are two small round eyes. The neck ring is a little
shorter than the head. By its upper edge are two filaments which
have about the same length as the head. The mouthopening is a
cross-split in the middle of the ring which is the neck (fig.
34). The so-called lower lips (more correctly lower jaws) are
two rather transparent plates of honr (fig. 35). Of the three
pairs of real jaws the outer one is strangly curved and without
teeth; the jaws situated inside (p. 173) these are much wider,
less curved, and equipped with ten teeth which are turned downwards.
The first two segments are in every respect different from the
latter ones. They are (1) almost twice as long as the latter
ones, (2) the fins are much longer and shoot forwards, (3) at
the end of these fins there are threadlike elongations (fig. 38b).
Besides (4) they have one simple gill (a) and (5) a ventral filament
(c) and (6) the bristles have a peculiar shape. They are very
thick, brown, curbed at the end and end abruptly (fig. 41a).
The following six rings are also a little different from the rest.
They have also one simple gill, but lack the ventral filament
(fig. 39). In place of the bentral filament is a halfcircular
knot, which increases in size on the following segments; these
have a very short fin. About where the fin goes over on the flat
back is a gill composed of two parts.
There are three kinds of bristles, some larger whose outer very
pointed part forms an angle with the lower part of the same bristle,
others thinner and smaller, whose foremost part forms a funnel,
that is composed of a great number of threads standing by the
side of each other and on one side has a triangular cut (fig.
37). A third kind is most alike those in the foremost rings,
but are hookshaped (fig. 41b). The needles (fig. 41c) are light
yellow. Specimens conserved in spirits have a pale yellow color,
but the first half of each ring is brown.
All specimens are received from Godthaab.
This species is separated from the other species in this genus
vary plainly by the very short fins and the gills, which have
(p. 174) 4th Family. Nereideae.
Gen. Nereis Aut.
Of the many species, which have been brought home of the genus
Nereis, some are so outstanding with respect to the peculiar
organization of appendices laterales that it becomes imperative
to transfer them to another genus. The species whose body consist
of two completely separate parts have been separated from the
genus Nereis in the following discussion. The first part
is round and the last part flatter (fig. 50, 51, 54) and on the
last part these species are provided with knots at the base of
the dorsal and ventral filaments, and a lamella on the end of
the ventral fin.
These species are referred to a new genus, which I have thought
it appropriate to name Heteronereis because it seems as
if the last part of the body belongs to another species than the
These genera could be characterized in the following way:
Nereis (Lin.) Örsd.
Segmenta omnia et forma et appendicibus aequalia. Nulla mamilla
branchiali nec ad basin cirri superioris nec sub cirro inferiore,
nec lamella in apice rami inferioris. Setae partim spinosae (poils
en arréte), partim falcatae.
Corpus ex duabus partibus et forma et appendicibus inter se
discrepantibus constans; parte anteriore teriti appendicibus
ut in genere Nereidi praedita, parte posteriore vero depressa;
in hac mamilla branchiali ad (p. (p. 175) basin cirri superioris,
lamella in apice pinnae inferioris, cirro inferiore in mamilla
bipartita affixo. Setae partim spinosae partim cultratae.
As it is very difficult to draw any sharp distinction between
the gills and the fins, all (mostly four) are looked upon as side-projections
in the genus Nereis belonging to the fins; although, at
least in some species, the gills are in the main confined to the
upper and lower part of the projections. Each fin is then supposed
to consist of two lobes. The bodies, which distinguish genus
Heteronereis, at the base of the cirri are called gill-knots
Nereis pelagica Lin. fig. 52, 53, 55, 58, 59.
Nereis verrucosa Mül. Faun. groenl. p. 292
-- pelagica Syst nat.
Corpore tereti, capite elongato-conico, palpis maximis, cirrorum
tentacularium duobus longissimis 4-6 segmenta sequentia juncta
longitudine aequantibus, segmento postoccipitali reliquis ferme
duplo longiore, ceteris segmentis 80 omnibus ejusdem ferme longitudinis,
quatnor pinnarum lobis abbrebiatis rotundatis inter se similibus
(excepto tertio paulo breviore) cirro superiore prope apiceum
pinnae superioris, cirro inferiore ad basin pinnae inferioris.
This is one of the largest species in Nereis. It reaches
a length of 7-8 inches and a width of 3 to 4 lines. It has from
eighty to ninety segments, which are altogether cylindrical and
have about the same length all over the body. They are three
or four times as wide as they are long. The head is long and
coneshaped. The feelers have half the length of the (p. 176)
head. The large gropers reach as far forward as the feelers.
The outer division, or joint of the gropers is very short. The
longest of the feelers are just as long as the ring of the neck
and the next four or five segments. The mouth, which can be protruded
to form a proboscis, shows, in front when it is protruded, 2 groups
of threadlike knots both on the upper-flat (fig. 59) and the underflat
(fig. 58). On the back of the underflat, on the contrary, in
a connected row, and on the upper flat, four small groups. The
jaws (fig. 55) are strongly twisted and very indefinite threadlike
projections. The ring of the neck is almost as long as the two
following rings put together.
The fins are proportionally short (fig. 56) almost grown together
to one fine with four uniform, short, rounded patches. They are
much longer on the last rings than on the first or middle rings.
The dorsal filament is situated near the end of the upper patch,
but the ventral filament on the contrary at the base of the lowest
Part of the bristles are sickle formed (fig. 52), part needled
formed (fig. 70). The color is copper brown, shining, often strongly
iridescent, with time it changes to a dirty green color. What
Fabricius reports about this species from Greenland, "Habitat
vulgatissime in fundo maris inter radices ulvarum (?: Laminariarum),
sum lapidibus et intra lestas vacuas", holds true with
respect to Denmark also. It is also found by England's coasts
and has then an existence from 50-70 degrees north latitude.
Specimens are sent from many different points of Greenland's coast
between Umanak and Julianehaab.
Nereis diversicolor Mül.
Die bunte Nereide Mül. v. Würm. 104, Tab. VI.
Nereis diversicolor Mül. Fauna groenl. p. 291.
Corpore 3" longo, 2 1/2''' lato depresso fusco vel fusco virescente, segmentis 70 utrinque regulariter
(p. 177) decrescentibus, capite conico postice non exciso,
oculis parvulis rotundis, tentaculis capite ter brevioribus,
palpis mediocribus, cirrorum tentacularium longissimis aeque longis
ac segmentis 3-6 anterioribus junctis, segmento postoccipitali
vix dimidio longiore quam ceteris, pinnis elongatis approximatis,
superiore distinct, inferiore vero indistincte trilobo, lobis
conicis acuminatis, cirro superiore ter-quater breviore pinna
ferme in media ejus superficie, inferiore paulo breviore ad basin
I have not seen any specimens of this species from Greenland coasts,
where it according to Fabricius' report is not common. By Denmark's
coast it is one of the most common species. It has been referred
to a special species of genus Nereis, with five feelers
(three feelers and two gropers) by Audouin and Milne Edwards.
But this classification is based on a mistake in O.F. Müller's
drawing and description (V Würm Pl. VI), because it has actually
only two feelers.
Gen. Heteronereis Örsd.
Heteronereis paradoxa Örsd. fig. 50, 63, 64,
Nereis longissima Johnst.? Annals of, nat. hist. Vol. V. p. 178.
Capite subpentagono longitudine segmenta duo segquentia juncta
aequante; parte antica corporis ex segmentis 50 constante, pinnarum
hujus partis lobo primo (c:summo), secundo et quarto elongato-conicis
acuminatis, tertio brevissimo rotundato, cirro superiore aeque
longo ac lobo primo; in parte postica lobo pinnarum primo, secundo
et quarto-elongatis acuminatis, tertio brevioure subclavato, cirro
superiore prominentiis indistinctis praedito.
This pretty species reaches a length of about 9 to 10 inches and
a width of six lines. The first round part is formed of fifty
(p. 178) segments, which are almost one line each long. The last
part is formed of about two hundred segments, of which the first
are not even half as long as those which make up the first part
of the body.
The head is comparatively small, pentagonal and is as long as
the two following segments. The feelers are half as long as the
head. The lower division or joint on the gropers is very large
and reaches as far forward as the feelers. The higher joint is
very small. The longest of the feelers are hardly as long as
the three following segments together.
The neck-ring is a little longer than the following segments.
Of the four patches of the fins on the first part of the body
the second, the third, and the fourth (Örsted means the first,
second, and fourth patch, as can be understood by comparing the
drawings with his description: translator's note) are very long,
cone-shaped and pointed (fig. 63 abd), the third (c) patch is,
on the contrary very short and rounded. The dorsal filament too
is long and almost as wide as the first patch, to whose base it
is fastened. The ventral filament is also wide but only half
On the last part (maybe this "last part" should read
first part instead of the other; compare fig. 50: translator's
note) of the body the fins are very long (fig. 64 & 66) so
that they, despite the fact that the body here is almost two lines
smaller than it is in the last part (Last part should be
first part of the body. Örsted couldn't mean that
the last part of the body is two lines smaller than the
last part of the body: translator's note), reach as far out
to the side as they do there. On the first segments of the last
part the upper fins are much longer than the lower fins (fig.
64), on the segments following they are about just as long (fig.
66). The knots on the gills at the base of the dorsal filament
is just as large as the one on which the ventral filament is fastened.
The first, second, and fourth patch (fig. 64 bce) (Örsted
must mean figure 66bce because fig. 64 is not lettered, and figure
66 compares with the description: translator's note) of the fins
are pointed, but the one on which the leaflike lobe is situated
is rounded. The dorsal and ventral filaments are of about the
same length. The dorsal filament is indistinctly notched. The
bristles are needle formed on the first part of the body and blade
formed on the last part (fig. 69).
The color is blue-grey in the specimens kept in spirits.
Only one very well preserved specimen was sent from Godthaab.
(p. 179) Heteronereis arctica Örsd. fig. 50*, 51, 60, 65, 68, 70*.
Capite elongato conico 4-5 segmenta sequentia juncta longitudine
aequante, maxillis parum tortis crenulatis; parte antica corporis
ex 20 segmentis constante, lobis pinnarum partis anticae omnibus
abbreviatis rotundatis, cirro superiore quater vel quinquies
longiore quam lobo primo; in parte postica lobo primo subaci\uminato,
ceteris abbreviatis rotundatis, cirro superiore prominentiis 9-10
The length is three inches. The width of the first part of the
body is three lines and of the last part four lines. The first
part consists of twenty segments, the latter part of sixty to
The head is comparatively large, cone formed, and as long as the
four following segments together. It is marked by a triangular,
light spot at the base. The feelers have one third of the length
of the head, and the gropers reach just as far forward as the
feelers. The longest of the feelthreads reach to the sixth segment.
The toothlike knots are divided on the mouth, which can be protruded
and take the form of a proboscis, in the same way as these knots
are divided on Nereis pelagica (fig. 60). The jars are wide and
thick with three or four rounded projections (fig. 50*). The
neck-ring is as long as one and a half of the following segments.
On the front part of the body the two upper rounded patches of
the fin are somewhat longer than the lower ones (fig. 65). The
dorsal filament is four or five times as long as the fin. The
ventral filament is one third shorter than the dorsal one. On
the last part of the body the patches are all rounded, only the
one on top is a little more pointed than the rest. The leaflike
lobe at the base of the dorsal filament is comparatively much
smaller than in the preceeding species. The dorsal filament has
nine projections on the lower side. The outer one of these projections
is the largest. The bristles are knifelike (fig. 69) and spread
out like a fan.
The color of the specimens conserved in spirits is a pale bluish
Specimens are sent down from many different points between Halsteenborg
(p. 180) Heteronereis assimilis Örsd. fig.
54, 61, 72.
Nereis renalis Johnst. ? loc. cit. p. 176.
Capite elongato-conico, 2-3 segmenta sequentia juncta longitudine
aequante, maxillis valde tortis serratis; parte antica corporis
ex 20 segmentis constante, lobis pinnarum hujus partis omnibus
abbreviatis rotundatis cirro superiore quater vel quinquies longiore
quam lobo, primo, in parte postica lobis pinnarum omnibus rotundatis,
primo et in primis quarto multo longiore quam secundo et tertio,
cirro superiore absque prominentiis.
This species as it is pictured (fig. 54) differs at the first
glance from Heteronereis arctica by the fact that the difference
between the two parts of the body is here less marked, because
the whole body is rather round and the rings and the fins are
not much different in length on the front or last part of the
body. But there are in these respects a greadt deal of transcendental
forms, so that one cannot consider the differences as basic which
are found in the form of the body and the relative length of the
segments and the fins.
This species differs from Heteronereis arctica in the following respects.
1. The head is not as large in respect to the body, but the neck-ring on the contrary is larger.
2. The jaws are longer, thinner, more twisted and equipped with more, and more pointed notches.
3. The head lacks the triangular spot.
4. The fins on the body's last part are shorter and thicker. The leaflike lobe at the end of the ventral fins's upper patch is smaller. The second patch on the contrary is larger than in Heteronereis arctica.
5. The dorsal filament lacks projections.
6. The bristles are almost all needleshped and sit lightly collected.
7. The color is usually somewhat darker.
This species all in all seems to be more robust than the others.
It is sent here from the same points as H. arctica.
Gen. Syllis Sav.
Syllis armillaris Örsd.
Nereis armillaris Mül. Zool. Dan. prodr. p. 217.
Geperlte Nereide Mül. v. Würm. p. 150. T. IV.
Nereis armillaris Fauna groenl. p. 294.
Nereisyllis ornata Blainv? Dict. d. se. nat. artel. vers. p. 473.
Lycastis armillaris Sav. op. cit.
Corpore 73''' longo, 1''' lato teretiusculo flavescente, striis
duabus transversis in singulo segmentorum 150, capite cordato,
palpis maximis longioribus capite, cirrorum tentacularium duobus
paribus, cirri 13 articulatis, articulis duplo latioribus quam
longis, pinna cylindrica apice truncata, aciculis ternis connatis,
setis falcatis subquinis.
This species, of which I have seen no specimens from Greenland,
but which I have had opportunity to observe at our coasts, stands
closest to Syllis maculata Edw. (Cuvier regne animal Annelides
par Milne Edwards). It is easily separated from this species
by the shape of the head, which is heart shaped, and by the presence
of cirri tentacularum which are absent in Syllis maculata.
(p. 182) According to Fabricius it is found, "in sabulo
marino profunde se condens". At our coast it never exists
except on a claybottom.
Gen. Ioida Johnston.
Annals of nat. hist. Vol. IV p. 231.
There is just a single incomplete specimen of this species, which
belongs to the scaleworms that Hr. Möller contributed to
the Royal Zoological Museum. Despite that the head and front
rings are lacking I don't think there can be any doubt about that
it belongs to the genus Ioida. It coincoides with this
genus in the structure of the side-supplements, and it is from
these that the most important characteristics of this genus are
taken. Here are found two fins (fig. 101) an upper one with very
long hairlike bristles and a lower one with the same structure
as in the genus Syllis with sickle shaped bristles (fig.
100). From the form and the size of the body one could believe
that it is the same as the species Johnston has described under
the name Ioida macrophthalma, (l.l), but it can hardly
be so because he reports that his species lacks the ventral filament.
Gen. Polybostrichus* Orsd.
(* footnote contains derivation of name, not translated by SK: LH)
Corpus lineare depressum ex duabus partibus, anteriore et posteriore,
forma inter se discrepantibus, constans. Caput appendicibus tentacularibus
11 instructum, palpi duo minuti, quator tentacula, cirri tentaculares
quinque. Os inferum absque maxillis. Oculi duo. In antica corporis
parte pinnae connatae setis falcatis praeditae; in (p. 183)
postica pinnae duae discretae, superioris setae siplices, inferioris
compositae falcatae. Cirrus superior diversae formae in antica
et postica corporis parte, cirrus inferior nullus.
This genus is rather isolated in family of Nereis with
respect to the supplements of the head. In this respect it shows
relationship with Onuphis. By the structure of the fins
it is closely related to the Ioida.
Polybostrichus longosetosus Orsd. fig. 62, 67, 71
Nereis prismatica Mül.? Fauna groenl. p. 302
Naturhistorie.-Selskabets Skrifter 5 B. p. 170 Tab. IV fig. 17-20
Corpore lineari-depresso, 1''' longo, 3/4''' lato, ex xegmentis
60-65 constante; segmentis 40-45 ejusdem ferme longitudinis, ceteris
posticam corporis partem versus regalariter descrescentibus; capite
rectangulari duplo latiore quam longo, duobus tentaculis, altero
super alterum affixo un qaoque angulo anteriore capitis, cirris
tentacularibus basi capitis affixis seriem transversalem formantibus,
duobus exterioribus et medio longissimis dimidiam corporis langitudinem
superantibas, duobus intermediis multo brevioribus; antica corporis
parte ex segmentis sex constante, a ceteris annulo, pinnis distituto,
separata; in hae pinnis cirris conicis fluxosis basi incrasatis
preaditis; in postica vero corporis parte pinnis prismaticis cirris
brevioribus filiformibus instructis latitudinem corporis longitudine
aequantibus, cirri caudalibus nullis.
The body is an inch long and a line wide, and rather flat. There
are sixty to sixty-five segments, of these the first forty to
forty-five are of almos the same length, namely twice as wide
as long. All the rest are much shorter and decrease in length
towards the end of the body (fig. 62).
(p. 184) The head is quadratic and has a quadratic notch in front.
Under this notch are two short gropers. Four feelers go out
to the side and are so long that, when they are held back, they
reach to the tenth segment. There are two large eyes. At the
base of the head are five cirri tentaculares, of which
three are half as long as the body as the two which sit between
these are hardly one third as long as that. The mouth-opening
is a little cross opening at the base of the feelers. There is
no neck segment.
The six first rings are separated from the following ones by a
short segment which lacks fins. The fins on these segments are
cone-shaped and a little shorter than on the following segments.
There is no distinction between dorsal and ventral fin, both
are completely fused together and provided with a group of bristles
which are short and have a very peculiar shape (fig. 67a). The
dorsal filaments are much longer than in the following segments,
very thick at the base and hooked (? - "taadformede":
SK) at the end.
On the following segments the fins are similarly shorn off at
the end, so that they form prisms (? - "Prismer": SK).
They are as long as the body is wide. The dorsal fin is separated
from the ventral fin by a notch which turns downward (fig. 71).
The bristles in it are longer than the body's width. They are
flat and pointed at the ends (fig. 67c), but in the dorsal fin
they have the same shape as in the six first rings. The dorsal
filament sits all the way out on the end of the fin's upper flat
and is threadlike.
The color of the specimens kept in spirits is dark brown.
It is not easy to decide whether this species should be transported
to Nereis bifrons or prismatica. According to Fabricius'
description it is like the first in the body but like the last
in the structure of the feelers. Perhaps it is different from
both. It seems to be close to Nereis corniculata, Zool.
Dan. Fab. 52, also.
Specimens are only sent from Godthaab.
(p. 185) Gen. Eteone Sav.
Caput distinctum, os exsertile absqve maxillis. Tentacula
quatuor brevia. Cirrorum tentacularium paria duo brevissimorum.
Branchiae conicae vel oviformes vel. sublamelliformes duae, superior
et inferior; branchia superior parva, basi corpori affixa horizontalis.
In this species all supplements are very small, It is different
from Phyllodoce and Eulalia in that it has two pairs
of cirri tentaculares and by form and position of the gills.
From Eulalia thereto it differs also by the absene of
the fifth feeler.
Eteone longa Sav. fig. 20, 28
Nereis longa Fauna groenl. p. 300. - Naturhistorie-Selskabets Skrifter p. 1717
Tab. IV fig. 11-13
Eteone longa Sav. op. cit.
Corpore tereti, capite elongato conico, branchia superiore
oviformi a pinna parum remota.
O. Fabricius reports having seen specimens of nine inches in length.
I have not had opportunity to study any ones longer than 3-4
inches and 3/4 lines wide. They were composed of eighty to ninety
segments that are four and five times as wide as they are long.
The head is coneshaped and as long as three or four of the following
segments together. The feelers are short and pointed. The eyes
are almost at the base of the head. The mouth which can be protruded
to form a proboscis reaches a length equal to eighteen to twenty
of the first rings. Two pairs of feelers sit on the first ring
after the head and are about half as long as the head.
The dorsal gills (fig. 28) are oval seen from the side, seen from
above on the contrary they are conical (fig. 20). They (p.
186) stand out uniformly from the side and are separated from
the fins by a space which is half as long as the dorsal gills
and a little shorter than the ventral gills, with which it is
closely connected. The last segment is twice as long as wide
and provided with a large oval leaflike lobe or rather papilla
as it is very thick.
With respect to color and habitat we get the following from Fabricius:
"The small specimens are white, partly milkcolored. The
larger individuals are pale-red or green-gray in the middle of
the dorsal side, and the largest are pale-green or seq-green in
the middle. It is found by the coasts so close to land that they
can be caught at low tide. It lives in holes which it bores in
A great number of examples are sent down from several points between
Umanak and Fredrikshaab.
Eteone flava Sav. fig. 47
Nereis flava Fauna groen. p. 299
Den gule Nereide. Naturhistorie-Selskabets Skrifter p. 168 Tab. IV fig. 8-10
Eteone flava Sav. op. cit.
Corpore depresso, capite-elongato conico, branchia superirore
compressa subrotunda pinna adpressa.
I have only seen one single poorly preserved specimen of this
species. It had a length of one and a half inches and was about
one line in width. Fabricius found specimens of twenty-seven
lines length and two lines width.
It is different from Eteone longa 1st) by the form of the
body which is flatter, 2nd) by the segments, which are shorter
sor that the gills of the different segments touch each other,
and 3rd) by the gills which are almost round and stand close to
fins so that they touch them (fig. 47).
The color, Fabricius reports, is orange.
It is found on the seabottom between roots of sea weed.
(p. 187) Eteone cylindrica Örsd. fig. 42, 49, 57
Corpore tereti, capite abbreviato conico, branchia superiore
compressa subovalis a pinna valde remota.
The few specimens I have seen of this species lacked the last
part of the body so that I cannot give the length of the whole
body. The longest was four inches long and 2-1/2 lines wide,
and the number of the segmentswas one hundred twelve. The segments
are absolutely cylindrical and five times as wide as they are
long. The head forms a short cut-off cone (fig. 57). The feel-threads
are a little longer than the feelers. The dorsal gills are heartshaped
and set off from the fins by a wide space (fig. 49).
The color of the specimens in spirits is chesnut brown, which
glistens with a spectrum of colors. Specimens are only sent from
Gen. Eulalia Sav.
Caput distinctum, os exsertile absque maxillis. Tentacula
quinque brevia acuminata. Cirrorum tentacularium paria quatuor.
Branchiae lamelliformes duae, superior non rectangularis basi
corpori affixa obliqua nullam dorsi partem obtegens, inferior
horizontalis pinna adpressa.
Note: Savigny thought that Nereis viridis Mül. and
Nereis maculata Mül. ought to be put in an (sic) own
genus, "Eulalia", yet without having any other
knowledge about these species than what he obtained from Müller's
and Fabricius' defective descriptions (Systeme des Annelides p.
45). But Nereis maculata is a true Phyllodoce.
There remains then Nereis viridis which forms the type
for the genus Eulalia. This species is, to be sure, conducted
to Phyllodoce by Audouin & Milne Edwards and given
the name Phyllodoce clavigera. But in several respects
it is so different that it certainly may be consented to conduct
its own genus, for which Savigny's name, which is appropriate,
may be retained.
(p. 188) This genus forms the transition from Eteone to
Phyllodoce. It is particularly characterized by the presence
of five feelers and by the position and size of the dorsal gills.
The gills are never rectangular, somewhat larger than in Eteone,
but not as large as in Phyllodoce, and they are situated
(? - "skraat", possibly diagonally: SK) out to the side,
not horizontally as in Eteone, nor vertically as in
Phyllodoce. The body besides is never as flat as in Phyllodoce.
The segments are comparatively longer and separated from each
other by larger or smaller incisions.
Eulalia viridis Sav.
Phyllodoce viridis Johnston. Annals of nat. hist. Vol. IV p. 288
Phyllodoce clavigera Aud. et. Edw. op. cit. p. 226 fig. 9-13
Nereis viridis Mül. Fauna groenl. p. 297
Die grüne Nereide. Mül. v. Würm p. 163 V. XI
Corpore tereti viridi, capite conico antice truncato, cirrorum
tentacularium pare primo in segmento primo, secundo et tertio
in secundo et quarto in tertio segmento affixo, branchia superiore
oblique lineari lanceolata acuminata, branchia inferiore elliptica
paulo longiore quam pinna.
The body reach a length of two and half inches and a width of
one and a half lines. It consists of sixty to severty rings,
which all have about the same length; they are namely about three
times as wide as they are long. The head is almost twice as wide
as it is long and a little wider at the base than the first segment
from which it is separated by a little incision on each side.
The feelers are mostly directed straight out. The first pair
of feel-threads sit on the first ring. On the second ring are
two pairs of feel-threads of which the lower ones have about the
same length as the ones on the first segment. The higher ones
on the contrary are almost twice as long. Those sitting on the
third segment are of the same (p. 189) length as these. The
dorsal gills are obliquely line-lancet-shaped and are directed
straight out from the side. The ventral gills are a little longer
than the fins to which it sits very closely.
It varies much in color from green-yellow to dark-green.
This species is rather common in Danish waters. It is also found
at England's and northern French coasts and seems to be common
over the whole North between the 70° - 59° northern
Specimens are sent down from several different points on the entire
coast of Greenland.
Gen. Phyllodoce Sav.
Caput distinctum, os exsertile absque maxillis. Tentacula
quatuor brevia acuminata. Cirrorum tentacularium paria quatuor.
Branchiae lamelliformes duae, superior magna saepius rectangularis
parte inferiore marginis lateralis corpori affixa, verticalis,
partem dorsi obtegens, branchia inferior horizontalis pinna adpressa.
The genus contains the largest of the species which earlier had
been classified under Phyllodoce in the sense under which
it was understood by Aud. and Milen Edwards. It is easily distinguished
from the two genera described above by the presence of four feelers
and four feel-threads and by the form and position of the dorsal
gills. They are rectangular and often very large, and fastened
to the body by the lower part of the inside edge so that they
are vertically or at least diagonally situated over the back and
cover a part of the back.
Phyllodoce? incisa Örsd. fig. 44
Corpore virescenti teretiusculo, capite conico duplo longiore quam lato, cirris tentacularibus in segmentis
(p. 190) duobus anterioribus affixis, segmentis mediis longitudine
latitudinem corporis aequantibus subhexagonis, ceteris utramque
corporis extremitateum versus reglariter descrescentibus, branchia
superiore subpentagona subhorizontali.
I have only seen one badly preserved specimen of this species.
It has a length of four inches and a width of half a line. There
are 120 segments. The head is twice as long as it is wide, cone-shaped
and is not separated from the first segment by any incision.
The four shortest feelpthreads sit on the first segment. They
are about the same length and about one third shorter than those
on the next segment.
The segments on the first part of the body are four times as wide
as they are long but increase in length towards the middle of
the body so that they there are about as long as wide. They are
separated from each other by deep incisions, making them almost
hexagonal. Toward the end of the body they again decrease in
size. Only the last segment is twice as long as wide and lacked
the end leaflike lobes on the specimens studied, but these had
probably fallen off.
The dorsal gills on the middle segments are obliquely pentagonal
with rounded corners.
The color of the specimens kept in spirits was almost gone, but
seemed to have been green.
The single specimen was sent from Godthaab.
Note: I do not doubt that closer studies of this species, than
a less-well preserved specimen makes possible, will show (p. 191)
the neccessity of leading this species to its own genus* which
will form the transition from Eulalia to Phyllodoce.
It is different from Phyllodoce by the long and notched
segment and the position of the leaflike lobes, and it is different
from Eulalia by the lack of the fifth feeler. But I believe
that, for the present, it is best to refer it to Phyllodoce.
* Til denne Slaegt vil da rimeligviis Phyllodoce maculata
Johnst. og Phyl. bilineata Johnst. Annals of nat. hist.
Vol. IV. p. 227 blive at henföre. (Not translated by SK)
Phyllodoce maculata Blanv. (vix Johnston) fig. 46
Nereis maculata Fauna groenl. p. 298
Eulalia maculata Sav.
Corpore viridi-flavescente maculato depresso, capite cordato
paulo longiore quam lato antice rotundato, cirris tentacularibus
in tribus segmentis anterioribus affixis, segmentis brevissimis,
branchia superiore subrectangulari verticali, branchia inferiore
subovali horizontali, setis capillaribus 15-20.
Length four inches, width one and a half lines, 150 flat segments.
The head is heartshaped and rounded in front. On the first ring
are two feel-threads which are long enough to reach to the sixth
segments if directed backwards. On the second ring are two of
the same length and above those another pair a little longer and
on the third segment is a pair of the same length as these last
the segments are only 1/7 - 1/8 as long as the body is wide (fig.
46b). The dorsal gills are almost rectangular, a little smaller
below than above. They are so situated that in the middle of
the body they cover most part of the back. The ventral gills
are somewhat longer than the fins and rounded at the end.
The color of the specimens kept in spirits is a greenish brown.
Specimens are sent from Holsteenborg and Jacobshavn.
The species which Johnston (Annals of nat. hist. Vol. IV p. 227.
Pl. VII fig. 1-3.) under the name of Phyllodoce maculata
is certainly from our species.
(p. 192) Phyllodoce groenlandica Örsd. fig. 19, 20, 22, 29-32
Corpore viridi depresso, capite cordato paulo latiore quam
longo antice truncato, cirris tentacularibus in segmentis duobus
anterioribus affixis, segmentis brevissimis, branchia superiore
subrectangulari verticali, branchia inferiore subelliptica in
mediis segmentis apice sursum versa, setis capillaribus 30-40.
This large and beautiful species can reach a length of ten to
eleven inches and a width of four lines. The body is made up
of 300-350 flattened segments. The ventral flat has a very deep
and wide furrow running lengthwise.
The head (fig. 21) is heartshaped and one half times as wide as
long. The difference between the first and last part of the proboscis
(mouth which can be protruded in the shape of a proboscis) is
very marked. The first shorter part (b) is made up of a very
thick leatherlike membrane provided with six furrows running lengthwise
and a great number of wrinkles running crosswise. In the end
are 17 short papillae that are nothing else than the ends of the
equal number of folds running lengthwise on the inner surface
of the proboscic. The latter part (a) is twice as long and is
made up of a much more moist and thinner membrane and it is equipped
with twelve rows of eggshaped papillae.
The first pair of cirri tentaculares are not placed on any ring,
but in between the head and the first ring. They are just as
long as those sitting on the first segment, as long as the five
first segments together. The two pairs on the second segment
are as long as nine segments. On the midle of the body they rings
are 5-6 times as wide as they are long.
The dorsal gills of the first segment are secured on a very large stem (fig. 30) and they are wider but not as long here as on the segments in the middle (fig. 31), where it is secured on a smaller stem. On the last segments both the gills and their stems decrease in size (fig. 32). The ventral gills on the first segments are pointing straight out from the side (fig. 30). On the middle segments, on the contrary, they point diagonally upwards (fig. 31) but again on the last segments
(p. 193) they occupy a more horizontal position (fig. 32). The
fins are equipped with about four bristles of the same shape as
with Phyllodoce laminosa.
It has a very dark grey-green color which it retains after having
been in spirits for a long time.
Specimens are sent down from the most different points on Greenland's
Note: Plate II fig. 22 shows the first part of the body cut open
from the ventral side in order to show the proboscis, when it
is not protruded. It stretches in form of a thin canal from the
mouth opening to the 39th segment where it opens into the intestines.
From the lower part a great number of muscles proceed to both
sides. The ends of these muscles are fastened in the layer of
muscles that lies under the dorsal side. They serve to protrude
the last part of the proboscis (b) up into the first part while
it is extended out of the mouth-opening.
Gen. Nephtys Cuv.
Nephtys caeca Örsd. fig. 73-74, 77-86.
Nereis caeca Fauna groenl. p. 304. naturhistorie Selskabets Skrifter p. 185. T. IV fig. 24-29
Aonis caeca Sav. Aud. et Milne Edw.
Parte lamellosa * pinnae superioris subovali subduplo longiore parte setigera, cirro superiore nullo, spatio inter pinnas altitudinem singulae pinnae subaequante, parte lamellosa pinnae inferioris horizontali, paulo longiore parte setiera obtusa, setis sparsis aliis ensiformibus serratis aeque longis ac pinnis, aliis minoribus subulatis.
* With the genus Nephtys the fines are composed of a knot-shaped
part in which the bristles are secured and a leaflike part.
This species can reach a length of about 8 inches and a width
of seven lines. It has 125-130 flattened segments which are almost
one line long in the middle of the body.
(p. 194) The head is pentagonal with four feelers, of which two
proceed from the two first corners of the head and the other two
go out from the side of the latter part of the head. The mouth-opening
(fig. 84a) has a lip (b) on each side. The proboscis is in front
provided with 24 papillae cloven at the end (fig. 86) and on the
upper side with 24 rows of pointed blades, six in each row. They
decrease in size behind so that the last are very small. The
jaws are very small (fig. 83).
The dorsal fin is separated from the ventral fin by a space almost
as wide as one of the fins (fig. 77). The dorsal lobe is oval
and about twice as long as the fin. The ventral lobe is as long
as the fin and twice as wide at the end as at the base. The gills
are curved and proceed from the end of the dorsal fin, at the
base it has a smaller branch. The ventral filament is not as
thick as in N. Hombergii. The lobes become smaller towards
the end the body (fig. 82), and are totally absent on the last
segment (fig. 85). The condition described seems to be general
with this species in regards to the side-supplements. But a few
specimens, which in all other matters are like this species, offer
in this respect such important differences (as those which fig.
78, 79, and 80 show) that there is doubt about whether they should
be considered as variants of this species or whether they should
be looked on as distinct species. This quesion can not be answered
without an investigation of a larger number of specimens than
I have had opportunity to do.
Some of the bristles are larger, flat, a little curved and on
the convex side provided with (fig. 80a) (sic; misprint for 81a:
SK), sawlike teeth, others are smaller, straight and harilike
(fig. 80b) (ibid: SK).
(p. 195) The color, as with all species of this genus, is shining
white, only the furrows running lengthwise are brownish-red.
According to Fabricius it lives in holes which it makes in the
sand so close to the shore that it can be caught at low tide.
Specimens are sent from the largest part of Greenland's coast.
Nereis caeca O. Fabr. has been considered an Aonis
by Savigny and later also by Audouin and Milne Edwards. But it
is without question that the species here described is the same
as Nereis caeca, thus N. caeca is a Nephtys.
The main difference between them is that it is pictured with
two tail-threads by Fabricius, but one will hardly be wrong if
one counts one of them a mistake. Nephtys caeca is easily
separated from N. Hombergii by the lack of cirrus superior,
by a much smaller space between the dorsal and ventral fins, and
by the shape of the knotlike part of the ventral fin. This part
is not pointed but rounded.
Note: Plate VI fig. 73 shows the first part of the body of this
species opened from the ventral side to show the proboscis when
it isn't protruded. The latter part of the proboscis (a) is formed
by four very thick layers of muscle while the first part is made
up of a thin membrane which is folded together under three strong
muscles (c) which engineer the protrusion by contracting. A long
food-canal (d) leads from the proboscis into the intestines.
On top of this lies a strong layer of muscles (b). From the upper
part of this layer muscles go out in a crosswise position.
Nephtys longoseetosa (sic) Örsd. fig. 75-76
Parte lamellosa pinnae superioris triangulari aeque longa ac
parte setigera, cirro superiore nullo, spatio inter pinnae altitudinem
pinnae inferioris subvincente, parte lamellosa pinnae inferioris
horizontali breviore parte setigera subacuminata, setis capillaribus
confertis ter longioribus pinnis.
(p. 196) This species is seen to be different from the previously
described one at the first glance by larger incisions between
the rings and by very longer bristles, which form something like
a broad frame around the whole body.,
The length of the body is about three inches, the width three
lines. It consists of 130-140 flattened segments. The head has
the same shape as in N. caeca but is comparatively a little
larger (fig. 76).
The dorsal lobe (fig. 75) is almost triangular and has the same
length as the fin on which it sits. The gills and the ventral
bristle-bearing part of the fin are somewhat pointed, nearly as
in N. caeca. The bristles are hairlike, twice as long
as the fins, and rather lightly collected.
The color of the specimens kept in spirits is a bluish-brown.
I have only seen two rather poorly preserved specimens which were
sent from Godthaab.
Glycera capitata Örsd. fig. 87-88, 90-94, 96, 99
Lumbricus capitatus? Fauna groenl. p. 279
Segmentis pinnas gerentibus simplicibus, pinnis et cirris et
ligula branchiali destitutis trilobis brevibus (aeque altis ac
longis), lobis conicis acuminatis, mamilla parva in utroque latere
segmentorum a pinnis valde remota, setis prominulis.
The body's length is about six inches and its width four lines.
It is more pointed at the tail than in front, and has 140-150
segments supporting fins and just as many without fins. The segments
without fins sit between the fin-supporting ones are are smaller
than them. The dorsal side is very arched, the ventral side,
on the contrary, is flat with a furrow in the middle.
The head consists of a long ring at the base of ten much shorter
rings. It is equipped with four very small feelers (fig. 99).
(p. 197) The fins are just as wide as they are long and divided
into three pointed branches, of which on middle rings the two
sit at the end and one at the base of the fin (fig. 93). On the
last rings, to the contrary, all the patches sit at the end of
the fins (fig. 94). On the side of the ring far above the fin
sits a papilla, which perhaps may be considered as a rudimentary
gill. The bristles are needle-shaped (fig. 87). The presence
of two needles and two groups of bristles show that there really
are two fins, which have grown together into one. The last segment
has two lancet-shaped blades (fig. 96).
The color is reddish-brown.
There are specimens sent down from several ports on Greenland.
It is not without doubts that I refer this species to Lumbricius
capitatus O. Fabr., when that species, according to the description,
is different in several respects. It would, however, be remarkable
if Fabricius should have been unacquainted with a species that
is so common on Greenland as this Glycera seems to be.
Note: Plate VII fig. 90-92 show specimens of Glycera capitata opened from the ventral side to show the structure of the proboscis and the intestinal canal. The proboscis hardly reaches such a length in relation to the body in any other genus. It occupies over a third of the body's length. The first part of the proboscis (fig. 91a) consist of a very strong membrane mad eup of parallel muscles, and it is somewhat longer than the last part (b). This last part consists of a thicker membrane, encloses four jaws and has above four triangular blind (? false: SK) pockets (n), perhaps saliva-glands. The food-canal has about the same length as the lower part ofthe proboscis, but lies in folds as long as the proboscis isn't protruded (c). The intestinal canal is an even canal without any (? Indsnöringen: SK) widened or contracted portions. It tapers gradually in thickness towards the end. If one lifts up the intestinal canal it is seen to be fastened to the dorsal side by a large number of muscles of which the first ones are very long and reaches from the beginning of the intestinal cnala about the 38th segment to the 22nd segment to which the muscle is fastened with the other end. The protrusion happens by pushing the latter part of the proboscis up into the first part by a muscle (m)
(p. 198) which is fastened in one end to the mouth-opening and
in the other to the end of the first part of the proboscis. The
proboscis is protruded through the mouth-opening. At the same
time the food canal is folded out and also the intestine is lead
so far forward that the first part of the food canal comes to
lie at the mouth opening and both parts of the proboscis outside
the mouth-opening (fig. 90).
Glycera setosa Orsd. fig. 89, 95, 97
Segmentis pinnas gerentibus ex duobus minoribus compositis,
pinnis et cirris et ligula branchiali destitutis quadrilobis elongatis
(duplo longioribus quam altis), tribus lobis conicis obtusis,
quarto multo breviore rotundato, mamilla parva in quoque latere
segmentorum a pinnis valde remota, setis productis.
The length of the body is about 4 inches and the width about two
lines. The number of foot-supporting segments is 120-125. The
shape of the body is about the same as in G. capitata,
but comparatively wider in the tail-end. Besides the ring which
separates those supporting the feet those latter are in themselves
divided into two segments so that the number of the segments are
actually three times the number of the feet-supporting segments.
The last part of the head (fig. 97) is formed by two larger rings
while its first part is formed of eight smaller rings. They all
have a little papilla on each side. The four feelers are a little
longer than in G. capitata but not as pointed.
The fins (fig. 95) are about twice as long as wide. In the end
they are divided into four parts, three almost coneshaped and
one wider and shorter patch (a). There is a small papilla far
above the fins as in the previously described species.
The bristles, of which there are about 20 in one and 40 in the
other, reach very far out. They have the same shape as in (p.
199) G. capitata. The tail-threads were lacking in the
two specimens ( examined. The specimens were sent down from Godthaab.
The color of the specimens kept in spirits is a brownish-green.
5th Family. Ariciae.
Gen. Scoloplos Blainv. Dict. d. se. n. art., art. Ver. T. VII p. 493
Character Genericus Emendatus
Anterior corporis pars depressa, posterior semicylindrica;
in illa utraque pinna lateralis, in hac dorsalis. Os inferius,
anus terminalis. Cirri nulli. Ligula branchialis supra pinnam
superiorem : dorsalis ultraque corporis extremitatem versus regulariter
decrescens et demum evanescens. Setae omnes subulatae.
This genus stands in close relation to Aricia Sav., but
for all that it is different from it in several important respects.
The body, for instance, is round in front and flattened at the
tail end in Aricia, while the opposite condition exists
in Scoloplos. But the most important difference is in
the shape of one pair of fins on the first part of the body, which
in Aricia is very distinct from the other fins and provided
with pecular bristles. In Scoloplos, on the contrary,
the bristles are (p. 200) almost similar in all fins. The difference
in the front fins and the others is only that the nearer the head
the more they are drawn from the dorsal side down in the sides
of the body and the size of the papillae which sit at bundles
of bristles decrease. (Compare figs. 107, 108, 109). The cirri
are also absent in Scoloplos. Both these genera and also
genus Spio are related to each other by the similarity
in an otherwise very deviating condition, namely, that the ventral
side in several respects takes on the same characteristics as
the dorsal side of other genera in this order. The ventral side
is arched and smooth while the dorsal side is flat. The fins
as is usual do not sit closer to the ventral side but more on
the dorsal side (fig. 107ab, 117ab), where the gills too are placed
(fig. 107c, 117c). These peculiarities may be due to different
conditions under which this animal lives. They either live in
pipes or dug down in the mud. Examination of specimens which
have been better preserved has clarified the error of my former
contentions to me*. The mouth-opening is found on the flat side
and that it was really the ventral side.
* Kroyers Tidsskrift 4. Bind 2. Haefte.
Scoloplos quadricuspida Örsd. fig. 106-110.
Nais quadricuspida Fauna groenl. p. 315
Naineris quadricpida Blainv. op. cit. p. 490
Scoloplos minor Örsd**) Kroyers naturhist. Tidsskrift. 4. Bind 2. Haefte.
** I have earlier overlooked the fact that O. Fabricius description of Nais quadricuspida coincides with this Scoloplos and I think it best to change the name minor to quadricuspida.
Capite globoso, in segmentis anterioribus utraque pinna papillis instructa, in posterioribus pinna inferiore minutissima rotundata pinna superiore multo majore acuminata, appendicibus caudalibus quatuor filiformibus.
(p. 201) The body is 2-1/2 inches long and 1-1/2 lines wide and
somethat flattend in front but otherwise round. Thinner towards
the tail than in front and it is made up of 120-130 very short
segments (fig. 110).
The head has two rings. The first one is spherical and the other
cone-shaped (fig. 106). On the second ring (fig. 109) the fins
consist of two small papillae on each side of a bundle of bristles.
On the twelfth segment which is not so flattened the fins are
situated higher up on the dorsal side and have about the same
appearance as in the middle of the body (fig. 107), but are a
little smaller. The ventral fin consists of a very short rounded
papillae (a) while the dorsal fin is much larger and pointed (b).
The gills have aboutthe same shape but are twice as large and
provided with ( ?Fimrehaar: SK) rather short hairs at the edges
The bristles are thin and pointed, provided with cross-streaks
and oval knots on one side (fig. 111). In the first fifteen segments
there are besides these bristles some short and cut-off bristles.
The last segment is much longer than the others and has four threalike
supplements (fig. 106).
The color of the specimens kept in spirits is dark brown.
Specimens are sent from all harbors on Greenland's coast.
Scoloplos armiger Blainv. fig. 116, 117, 118
Lumbricus armiger Zool. Dan. T. 22
Capite conico acuminato, in anterioribus segmentis modo pinna
inferiore papillo instructa, in posterioribus pinna inferiore
elongata apice furcata, pinna superiore minore acuminata appendicibus
caudalibus nullis.Of this species I have only seen the first
part of one specimen from Greenland, but I am acquainted with
it from our own shores (p. 202) where it is rather common so that
I dare include it here with certainty. It is different from the
preceedings species by the above diagnosis.
Gen. Spio O. Fabr.
Corpus teretiusculum filiforme pellucidum, caput conicum in
rostrum abbreviatum productum, oculorum paribus tribus et appendicibus
tentacularibus duobus filiformibus longissimis bassi affixis praeditum,
oris apertura infera vel subterminalis. Os parum exsertile absque
maxillis. Pinna superior setis uncinatis vel capillaribus, inferior
setis capillaribus instructa, branchia ligulata margine ciliis
obsita dorsalis introrsa. Cauda quadrifurcata.
This genus has not yet received a place in the classification.
Audouin and Edwards thought that it was closest to Syllis,
but they did not know any species from their own studies.
It is so closely related to Scoloplos that the presence
of the long arms with which it lays hold of its food (?Fangearme;
fange = to catch & arme = arms; SK) is the only characteristic
which separates these genera. Two related genera which I know
from our shores will together with this one come to form a new
family which will stand in the same relation to Ariciae as Naides
to Terricolae*. Despite that I have not seen specimens from
Greenland of these two species I will give the diagnosis of them
with the assumption that they are the same that I know from our
own coasts as they confirm to Fabricius' description.
* See Kröyers' Tidsskrift 3 Bind: Örsted conspectus
Naidum & cet.
(p. 203) Spio seticornis Fabr.
Nereis seticornis Fauna groenl. p. 306
Spio seticornis Schriften der naturf. Fr. z. Berlin, T. VI
Duabus oculorum seriebus parallelis, appendicibus tentacularibus
apicem versus non attenuatis, segmentis absque punctis nigris,
branchiis ligulatis in medio corpore maximis utramque extremitatem
Spio filicornis Fabr.
Nereis filicornis Fauna groenl. p. 307
Spio filicornis Schriften d. naturf. Fr. zu Berlin. T. VI
Duabus oculorum seriebus antice divergentibus postice convergentius,
appendicibus tentacularibus apiceum versus attenuatis, singuli
segmenti margine posteriore punctis 4 nigris notato, branchiis
ligulatis in anteriore corpore maximis, medium versus evanescentibus.
Gen. Ophelia Sav.
Character genericus emendatus.
Corpus teres antice acuminatum postice truncatum. Caput nullum
distinctum. Os inferum. Duo setarum fasciculi (pinnae) in omnibus
segmentis ligulaque branchialis in mediis vel in omnibus. Cirri
nulli. Anus terminalis papillarum serie instructus.
This species has been very poorly known and its whole organization
comprehended erroneously. The mouth-opening (p. 204) has been
mistaken for a __________ (? Gadbor: SK) and thought to lie on
the dorsal side. The mouth was thought to be at the end of the
body and the dorsal side considered to be the ventral side and
inversely. The pointed part of the body is the front part. The
mouth-opening is on the ventral side and the _______(? Gadboret)
is located in the cut-off end of the body. It is not easy to
understand how by examining the external form of the body one
can understand its structure in other ways. An anatomical examination
also shows (fig. 105), by the mouth-opening the mouth-cavity (a),
which at the base is provided with a long blind sack that is twisted
at the end (b, perhaps a salivary gland), and goes over into the
uniform intestinal-canal (c) which is enclosed in large liver.
The nerve-string is also found on the side of the body which
had been taken for the dorsal side but which in reality is the
Ophelia bicornis Sav.? fig. 104-5, 115, 116, 121
Savigny's systeme p. 38
Aud. & Edw. op. cit. p. 267. Tab. V B.f.7-9.
Segmentis 36-38, singulo ex annulis 5-6 vix conspicuis composito,
ligulis branchialibus in segmento 11mo-30mo, margine interiore
duobus prominentiis praeditis, segmentis posterioribus absque
mamillis, papillarum 14 analium duobus intermediis ceteris multo
The body is round, cone-shaped and pointed in front, and has an abrupt tail. It is one inch three lines long and from two to three lines wide. It consists of 38 to 39 which are only slightly different from each other. The four or five last ones are very short. Each of the larger segments consists again of six smaller ones which are only seen with difficulty by the
--------- (?Luppen: SK). On the dorsal side is a broad longitudinal
stripe which has a furrow in the middle. The head or the first
segment is pointed and cone-shaped. The mouth-opening is a cross-fissure
which lies straight in line with the first bundle of bristles
(p. 205) The fins have two bundles of bristles. There are 18-20 larger and smaller straight bristles int he dorsal fin, and in the ventral fin there are 10-12 curved, hairlike bristles. On the 12th to the 32nd segments is on each a gill sitting straight over the dorsal fin. The gill has two rounded projections on the inside edge (fig. 116). _______ (?Gadboret) is at the tail very large and equipped with twelve small and two large rounded projections which sit in the middle by the side of each other (fig. 121). The color is shining grey. The gills are brownish.
The specimens are sent from Godthaab.
Ophelia mamillata Örsd. fig. 103, 112, 114, 119-120.
Segmentis 25-28, singulo ex annulis 3 vix conspicuis composito,
ligulis branchialibus in segmentis omnibus, margine interiore
absque prominentiis, singulis segmentis posterioribus duobus parius
mamillarum lateralium instructis, papillis analibus 11 minutissimis
omnibus ejusdem longitudinis et secundo quoque ejusdem latitudinis.
The shape and size of the body is in general like O. bicornis
(fig 103). The 27-28 segments of the body are much more plainly
distinguishable from each other than in the previous species.
The 20 first segments are eeach divided into three smaller ones.
The following ones are only equipped with an incision which gradually
decreases in size towards the tail so that after the 3rd last
ring the two last ones are completely smooth.
On figures 103 and 114 there are only gills pictured on the middle
segments. The drawings were made after specimens from Greenland,
but I have later found specimens of this species in Oresund which
had gills on all its segments.
(p. 206) The gills are comparatively somewhat larger at the base
(fig. 119) than in the ones in the previous species. The _______
(?Gadboret) is equipped with 11 papillae of the same length.
Six of these are twice as wide as the five which sit between every
other one of these (fig. 112).
The color is the same as in O. bicornis.
Ophelia mamillata var. crassa fig. 114.
This variety is different from the previous one in that the body
is comparatively much shorter and thicker. Specimens are sent
Gen. Cirratulus Lamarck.
Cirratulus borealis Lam. fig. 98, 102
Lumbricus cirratus Mül. Fauna groenl. p. 281
Cirratulus Medua (Cir. fuscescens et. Cir. flavescens Johnst.) Johnston loc. cit. V. II. p. 71
Corpore tereti utrinque aequaliter alternuato, tribus segmentis
anterioribus absque appendicibus duplo longioribus quam ceteris,
in superficie quarti serie branchiarum, setis utriusque pinnae
The body is 2-1/2 inches long and 2 to 2-1/2 lines wide, round,
and decreasing similarly in width towards both ends. It has 50-60
segments, which are not plainly separately from each other.
The head (the first segment) is cone-shaped and rounded in front. A large numer of eye-points on each edge of the head's dorsal side build a connected row. The mouth-opening is almost at the end of the body (in front: SK). The two next segments are twice as long as the other and have no supplements. On the 3rd segment on the contrary is a row of threadlike gills of the same length and shape as the ones of which there is a pair on each of the following segments
(p. 207) straight above the dorsal fin (fig. 98). There are 10-14
thin, hairlike bristles in the dorsal fin while only 6-8 in the
As this is the same species which exists at several points on
our coasts, I can report that the color is reddish-brown or sometimes
Specimens are sent from most ports on Greenland's coast.
Arenicola piscatorum Lamark.
Lumbricus papillosus Fauna groenl. p. 279.
Specimens of this species are sent down from separate points of
Greenland's coast as far as to Umanak. They are striking through
their large size. They sometimes reach a length of 12 to 16 inches
and width of 12 to 18 lines. It is the same species which exists
by Denmark's and all European coasts.
Survey of the Annulata dorsibranchiata of Greenland
Of the Annelida, which have been earlier described from Greenland,
26 belong to this order. These are enumerated here together with
synonyms of them used in this treatise.
|Lumbricus marinus||Arenicola piscatorum|
|Lumbricus capitatus||Glycera capitata|
|Lumbricus cirratus||Cirratulus borealis|
|Lumbricus papillosus||Arenicola piscatorum|
|Nereis noctiluca||Polybostrichus sp.?|
|Nereis diversicolor||Nereis diversicolor|
|Nereis verrucosa||Nereis pelagica|
|Nereis armillaris||Syllis armillaris|
|Nereis incisa||Ioida sp.?|
|Nereis aphroditoides||Nereis sp.?|
|Nereis viridis||Eulalia viridis|
|Nereis coerulea||Phyllodoce sp.?|
|Nereis maculata||Phyllodoce maculata|
|Nereis flava||Eteone flava|
|Nereis longa||Eteone longa|
|Nereis rosea||Psammathe puncata?|
|Nereis prismatica||Polybostrichus sp.|
|Nereis bifrons||Polybostrichus sp.|
|Nereis coeca||Nephtys coeca|
|Nereis seticornis||Spio seticornis|
|Nereis filicornis||Spio filicornis|
|Aphrodita cirrata||Lepidonote cirrata|
|Aphrodita punctata||Lepidonote punctata|
|Aphrodita scabra||Lepodinote (sic) scabra|
|Aphrodita longa||Polynoe longa|
|Aphrodita minuta||Pholoe minuta|
|Nais quadricuspida||Scoloplos quadricuspida.|
Of these 27 species there are ten of which I have not seen any
specimens from Greenland, but four or five of these, namely: Nereis
diversicolor, Aphrodita punctata, Spio seticornis, Spio filicornis
and perhaps Nereis rosea, I know from Denmark. There are
then only five species, namely: Aphrodita longa, Nereis noctiluca,
N. aphroditoides, N. coerulea, and N. prismatica or
bifrons, which I am not familiar with from personal investigation.
But these can, I think, with certainty, be conducted to familiar
species, as the above implies. If the twelve new species from
Greenland's fauna which are described above are added together
with 11-12 species, which, thanks to the courtesy of Captain-Lieutenant
Holböll and Hr. Möller, I have had opportunity to study,
to these 26 Fabrician species the fauna of Greenland will count
49-50 species of this Order. The 11-12 species of Holböll's
and Möller's were studied after this treatise was sent to
the Royal Scientific Society.
In order to show what relation the number of of these species
stand to the numbers of species from other regions I give the
survey of the number of species from three countries in the table
below. These countries lie between diferent latitudes and can
be considered as having been equally well explored. They are
France, Denmark, and Greenland.
The above shows that Greenland in respect to the number of species
does not lag behind France and has specimens of the same families
as France. Nereideae and Ariciae seem to be more prevalent in
Greenland while Aphroditaceae and Euniceae are more abundant in
the temperate zone. Amphinomaceae and Peripatii (the most developed)
may be considered as tropical families.
The following 15 species: Polynoe cirrata, Polynoe punctata,
Lumbrineris fragilis, Nereis pelagica, Nereis diversicolor, Psamathe
punctata, Syllis armillaris, Eulalia viridis, Scoloplos armiger,
Spio filicornis, Spio seticornis, Ciratulus borealis, Ophelia
mamillata, O. nov. sp., Arenicola piscatorum, are common in
Denmark and Greenland. But it is only three species from Greenland
which also appear on the coasts of France, namely, Eulalia
viridis, Ophelia bicornis, and Arenicola piscatorum.
It is already noticed about the individual distinctions of the
polaric (sic) specimens that several species attain a much greater
size than they do in southern seas in which they appear. This
condition is very plainly noticeable in Arenicola piscatorum
and Polynoe cirrata, but holds also for many species
of other classes of ocean animals. One (p. 211) may consider
these animals to have their real home in the high north. It
should also be noticed that most of the species, which exist both
at Denmark and Greenland, exist closer to the shore of Greenland
while in Denmark they are found only in deeper waters. This is
probably because they find more salty water below than on the
surface. That they do not thrive as well by our coasts, that
is, do not attain such a large size, depends, I should think,
mostly on that our waters are less salty.
[Plates not included yet, though these might be available later. Please see original text]