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Grönlands Annulata Dorsibranchiata.

By A. S. Örsted

Örsted, Anders Sandöe 1843. "Grönlands Annulata Dorsibranchiata." Kongelige Videnskabernes Selskabs naturvidenskabelige og mathematiske Afhandlinger X Deel, København. Vol. 10: 155-216, pls. I-VIII.

[SK and LH annotations are those of the translator (Sven Karell), and of Leslie Harris (Los Angeles County Museum of Natural History), who kindly made the translation available in this digital form. It was originally done for Olga Hartman, and the papers are partially typed & partially handwritten by her, with a note on the top that reads "translation by Sven Karell 1937" - GBR.]

I. Introductory Remarks

(p. 155) Our knowledge of the northern fauna was raised to a considerable height toward the end of the last century by the important work of O. F. Mueller and C. Fabricius. After that the development of science in this field came to a comparative standstill. Our literature therefore does not offer any other works in reference to the scale worms of Greenland than those we owe to Fabricius. This writer in the Writings of the Society for Natural History the 5th edition 1799 and in Schriften der Berl. naturf. Freunde VI Band minutely described and pictured some of the same species which are described in his fauna Groenlandica.

The explorers which later travelled to the northern country have not given any contribution to this section of the fauna of Greenland. In the systematic works which are written about the scale worms by Blainville (Diction. d. scien. natur. arctic. vers.), by Savigny (Systeme des annelides), and by Audouin and Milne Edwards (Classification des Annelides et cet.) the species from Greenland are handled only according to the old descriptions.

(p. 156) It was with great interest I welcomed this opportunity which offered itself to me to correct the old descriptions and to increase this part of our knowledge of Greenland's fauna with descriptions of new species. Much more so when I already for a longer period had been occupied with studying the Danish scale worms. Both of these countries' faunae supplement and clarify each other. The materials which are the basis of this treatise have long ago been sent from various points of Greenland's coast. Most of it is to be credited to Captain-Lieutenant Kollbäll whose sacrifising endeavors to increase our knowledge of Greenland's fauna cannot be praised enough, and to the botanist F. Uahl.

Both the descriptions and the drawings are made after specimens preserved in spirits. Animals so kept change both in color and in form, so that there will yet be many errors to correct, and additions to make for him who has leisure to examine these animals alive. When several of the few species I had at hand were somewhat damaged I have had very little grounds to give the description any high degree of detail, as I did not want to describe as characteristics of a species what was only a variational trait.

(p. 157) There is not space here to give an inclusive discussion of the terminology which has been used in the description of the scale worms, but I am briefly going to explain as much as is necessary to make this treatise more eaily understood. Several of the terms that have been used seem to me so inappropriate that I could not accommodate myself for their use, and I had to invent some new Danish ones instead.

There are three kinds of head-appendages: Feelers (Tentacula) are the projections, which are situated on the foremost part of the head. Thus on the Nereis there are two (fig. 53), on Lepidonote three (fig. 10-11), and in Phyllodoce four (fig. 21). The feelers have often been called the inner feelers to distinguish them from the gropers (Palpi) which have been called the outer feelers. But these organs are different from the others in form, position, and function and should have another name. Mueller already realized that and called them "Dutten" (Von Würm. p. 121). They are much thicker than the feelers, are often composed of two divisions separated by a joint, project from the edge of the mouth and serve as a help to put the food into the mouth. The name gropers therefore the most appropriate. They are very strongly developed (fig. 50-51, 53-54) in Nereis.

The feet threads (Cirri tentaculares) are the threadlike bodies which proceed from the base of the head and may be taken as counterparts of cirri on the rings of other parts of the body. In respect to their nature therefore they stand between the cirri and the tentacula. On Lepidonote two are (combined) united on a common baseline (joint) (fig. 10-11), on Phyllodoce there are four on each side (fig. 21), and on Nereis also four, of which each is equipped with its baseline (fig. 50-51, 53-54). On Polybostrichus there are five in a row (fig. 62).

The neckring (Segmentum postoccipitale) is the first ring after the head. It is often different from the others in that it lacks all the supplements which the others have (fig. 50-51, 53-54).

(p. 158) Trunk projections (as exertile) is called the mouth on this class of scaleworms, because it has the quality of being able to stretch the mouthopening, often very far so that it takes the form of a trunk, by which name it has been called until now. It consists of an anterior part (fig. 22a and fig. 91-92a), which is made up of a rather thin membrane, and a posterior part (fig. 22b and fig. 91-92b), the actual mouth-cavity, which surrounds the proboscis , if they are present, and is composed of a very thick, strong muscle tissue. The anterior, thinner part serves only to be elongated around the posterior one when it is thrust out of the mouthopening (fig. 21 and fig. 90).

These supplements belong to the rings of the body:

The fins (Pinnae) are the knotlike elongations on which needles and groups of bristles are fastened. They are rudimentary feet, and are in the same relation to the feet of insects as the fishes paired fins are to the organs of motions in mammals. Just as locomotion with the fishes is not so much brought about with the fins as with the tail so here too it is the whole body mainly which brings about the motion we call swim while the fins are used when they creep along slowly. Heretofore these organs have been called many different names such as feet, pedes, rames, ruder, rami. This last name, rami, most likely arose from an incorrect translation of the French rames and should rather be remi. The French rame can mean both the Latin ramus, a branch, or remus, an oar. If these organs, about which these names have been used, should be compared with one of the above things it would look more like the oar than the branch. If any of the earlier used names should be retained, it should be feet, pedes, but as these animals' organs of locomotion (p. 159) show a much better analogy with the fishes fins than with higher quadruped's or biped's feet, and when the scaleworms in many other respects stand in the same relation to higher jointed animals as the fishes do to the higher footed animals so must the name fins surely be considered the most appropriate. If someone protests that this name may give occasion to draw an incorrect analogy when the fins of fishes also appear singly and do not correspond to the limbs in the higher animals in that respect, one may reply that the name fins, pinnae, pennae originally (and undeniably most correct) only described the true organs of locomotion, that the Romans obtained this from an analogy with the birds' wings, which also were called pinnae or pennae, and that this name ought not to be used on other organs than those existing in pairs, like backfins, Kailfins (sic), etc., because by the word fins one means the paired fins, the real organs of locomotion.

One can often separate an upper fin (pinna superior, p. dorsalis) which sits closest the flat back and a lower fin (pinna inferior, p. ventralis fig. 13, 71). They are often somewhat fused together (fig. 93), and then the presence of one or two needles will decide if one should consider it one or two fins, for each fin is usually equipped with one needle.

The bristles are either simple or complex. Of the simple bristles these are noticed:

hairformed bristles (Setae capillares, fig. 71, 101),
awlshaped bristles (Setae subulatae, fig. 111),
hollow (?) bristles (Setae canaliculatae, fig. 15b, 17),
hookformed bristles (Setae uncinatae, fig. 41b),
forked bristles (Setae furcatae, fig. 27).

(p. 160) The complex bristles are these:

thorned bristles (Setae spinosae, fig. 70),
knifeshaped bristles (Setae cultratae, fig. 69),
sickleformed bristles (Setae falcatae, fig. 52).

The back-filament (Cirrus dorsalis s. superior), is the thread-like body, which almost always is present at the base of the upper fin, and ventral-filament (Cirrus ventralis s. inferior), is the name given to the similar organ which proceeds from the base of the lower fin.

I have called such organs, which have such a structure that they may be supposed to serve as organs of respiration, Gills (Branchiae). They are always more or less placed on the side of the body, in the proximity of or altogether connected with the fins, or on the back. These organs have not heretofore been called gills, except with the kind where the gills are very plainly recognized (as with Amphinome, Arenicola, etc.). Otherwise they have been given various names corresponding to their forms. Thus it has been called squamae or elytra on the Aphroditaceae. These names were brought into use by Savigny when he thought he found an analogy between these organs and wing-coverings on insects, an analogy which certainly may be altogether rejected. Audouin and Milne Edwards called it leaflike cirri in Phyllodoce, despite the fact that they themselves indicate that the organs do not have the form of cirri and that they have a strucutre which gives no doubt but that they serve as organs of respiration. Why not much rather call them gills?

They are called cirri in Cirratulus, but are very manifestly threadlike gills. Despite the fact that there certainly are related groups where it is difficult and perhaps impossible to draw any sharp line between gills, cirri, and fins, because these

(p. 161) organs often fuse together (for instance with Nereis, Glycera, and several others), I believe that one ought to give as a principle that everywhere where organs exist, even if only rudimentary ones, which according to their structure, position, and form, etc., could be taken as identical with the gills on more developed forms, they ought to be called gills even though the respiratory function is just as much confined to other parts of the body. This opinion seems not to be held by the famous French writers, Audouin & Milne Edwards.

There remains yet to give an account of why the name dorsibranchiata was used for scaleworms of this class. The name as known as introduced by Cuvier and which we shall try to reintroduce here instead of Annulata errantia. This name which was first brought into use by Audouin and Milne Edwards was later commonly adopted. If one regards the main reason upon which these authors supported their name one will find that it does not have sufficient validity. They assert, that the organs which sit along the back, and on whose function as gills Cuvier supported his name dorsibranchiata, often only coincide with gills in form and position, but that they do not function as gills any more than do many other parts of the body; (loc. cit. p. 2) in other words that they are rudimentary gills. On the other hand, they did

(p. 162) not deny that all the higher forms of the different families are equipped with plainly developed gills and that hardly, in respect to the position of these organs, do they differ anything from the Tubiculae, on which the gills are developed only on the front part of the body. Hence it should be clear, that as the repetition of uniform organs in the long run is the characteristic which usually distinguishes the scaleworms, it becomes the characteristic for this class that the repetition not only recurs in the same system of organs as in the other classes but just in one system, namely the respiratory system. In this class then is found the most complete expression for the worms, since the repetition here goes farther than in any other class. That the gills are rudimentary or even disappearing in some kinds of these worms cannot be any reason for denying that this class has its most important characteristic in the position of its gills. And as Cuvier obtained his name from these considerations, there will be no reason to reject his name.

(p. 163) II. Description of existing species of Annulata Dorsibranchiata in Greenland

The first family: Aphroditaceae Gen. Polynoe Autorum

The way in which genus Polynoe has been classified by Savigny and later by Audouin and Milne Edwards it contains species which are so different in their structure that they could very well be put in three different genera which also could be divided up into several subgenera. These three genera can be described in the following way.

I. Branchiae cum cirris alternates, setae simplices

Gen. Lepidonote (Leach) Orsd.

Corpus oblongum, segmenta 24-40, branchiarum paria 12-15 dorsum totum obtegentium, pinnae discretae; duo cirri inferiores, setae canaliculatae.

Gen. Polynoe (Sav.) Orsd.

Corpus lineare, segmenta 70-100, branchiarum paria 15-40, minutissimarum maximam dorsi partem mudam relinquentium; pinna utraque in unum connata, cirrus inferior unicus, setae canaliculatae.

II. Branchiae in omnibus segmentis (paucis ex posterioribus exceptis), magnam dorsi partem nudam relinquentes, cirri nulli, setae pinnae superioris simplices, inferioris compositae.

(p. 164) Genus Pholoe Johnston?

If one could rely on the accuracy of Johnston's account and picture of Pholoe inornata, then neither Aphrodita minuta nor another new species, that I have found on the coasts of Denmark, could be classified in the genus Pholoe; for while this genus is characterized by two eyes, five feelers, and gills on every other ring, the above described species have gills on all rings, and at least one of them four eyes and six feelers. But I have learned from experience that Johnston's drawings and descriptions are not accurate (see, for instance, the picture of Polynoe cirrata, Annals of nat. Hist. Vol. II, Tab. 22). For the present therefore I have thought it best to refer these species to the genus Pholoe.

Gen. Lepidonote

Lepidonote scabra Orsd. fig. 2, 7, 10, 12-13, 17-18
Aphrodita scabra Fauna groenl. p. 311
Polynoe scabra Sav.

Corpore posticam partem versus angustiore, segmentis 38-39, capite subpentagono antice obtruso postice truncato, appendicibus capitis et cirris dense pilosis, branchiarum scaberrimarum paribus quindecim, setis valde porrectis nec non divergentibus, in pinna inferiore apice curvatis nec uncinatis.

This beautiful and easily recognized species sometimes reaches a length of about 2 1/2 inches and a width of 8-9 lines (p. 165) (fig. 2). The latter part of the body is always smaller than the foremost, although in some specimens this difference is rather slight. Of the 38-39 rings the latter are always much shorter than the former. The gills, with the exception of the 3 first pairs, on the right side cover with the inner edge those on the left side. The first pairs of gills are oval and much smaller than the middle ones, which are formed like kidneys (fig. 7). They are very rough because they are sprinkled over with dark brown, hard knots which increase in size toward the back edge of the ring, where they take the form of cylindrical projections which are more or less split in the end.

The head (fig. 10) is almost in the form of a pentagon, and is equipped with four round rather large eyes. The middle feeler has about the same form and length as the feelthreads (sic). They are all a little shorter than the gropers and are like these lightly clad with long hairs. The two outer short feelers, on the other hand, are rather smooth.

The filaments on the back have the same form and size as the middle feeler, but are equipped with longer hairs. The uppermost fin is short and cut off. The lower fin is much longer. It is cut off from the sides toward the middle so that it is longest in the middle, (fig. 13). On the side which is turned toward the head it is more obliquely cut off so that it is longer above (fig. 12). The bristles in the upper fin are alike, somewhat convex on the one side and provided with 60-70 toothed cross-stripes (fig. 18). They are very stiff and spread out from each other, so that they lift the scales outer edge up somewhat. In the lower fin the bristles (fig. 17) are much longer, crooked at the end, and a little below the curve they are provided with toothed cross-stripes which do not go as far down as to the middle of the bristle. The outer filament of the belly is 2/3 the length of the fin nearest the belly, the inner one is not half as long (fig. 13).

With respect to its color and habit it is perhaps best to let Fabricius speak as he has seen it alive:

(p. 166) Color sordide viridis, abdomine albo nitante, linea longitudinali rubra. Habitat in locis profundis maris sub lapidibus, minus frequens.

Few specimens are sent from Godthaab.

Lepidonote cirrata Orsd. fig. 1, 5, 6, 11, 14, 15
Aphrodita cirrata Faun. groenl. p. 30.
Flache Aphrodite Mül. Von Würm. p. 180 Tab. III.
Aphrodita violaca Acta nidr p. 366.
Polynoe cirrata Sav.

Corpore utrinque fere aequaliter obtuso, segmentis 35-36, capite pentagono antice in prominentias duas acuminatas producto, appendicibus capitis et cirris glabris, branchiarum laevium paribus quindecim, setis prominulis approximatis, in pinna inferiore uncinatis.

The length is about 2 1/2 to 3 inches, the width at the middle 8 lines. The gills are very glistening and smooth. They have the form of a kidney on the middle segments (fig. 5-6). They vary much in color; thus they do not have one uniform shade but run through all shades of green, brown, blue, or black, or they have different colors, such as brown with a lighter spot in the center or light-grey with a black edge (fig. 6). The variety, which has blue gills, has been classified as a new species, Aphrodita violacea Strom l.c. The 12 former pairs of gills sit alternatingly with the dorsal filaments, the 13th pair sit on the 27th segment, the 14th pair on the 30th segment, and the 15th pair coveres the 5 and 6 last segments.

The head is almost pentagonal (fig. 11), it is split in a pointed cut in the front so that the head is divided into two pointed parts. The color of the specimens preserved in spirits is bright red. One pair of eyes sit in the corners farthest back on (p. 167) the head, the other pair one on each outer side of the two split parts of the head. The middle feeler and feelthreads have the same form and size. They have all a dark spot on the back and front side of the thicker part. The spot can be seen toward the end of the thick part. The other feelers have about half the length of the middle ones. The gropers are one third as long as the feelthreads. All these supplements of the head are smooth and without hairs.

The fins have about the same form as in the preceeding species. The dorsal fin is omewhat shorter, while the ventral fin is a little longer (fig. 14), but it is not always as pointed as the figure shows. The bristles in the dorsal fins are a little curved, and are provided with a row of fine teeth on the upper part. The row does not extend altogether out to the end (fig. 16a). They are much longer in the ventral fin, almost alike, a little above the middle they are widened, and provided with toothed cross-stripes and a little hook at the end (fig. 16b). The dorsal filaments have the same form and size as the middle feelers. Behind the dorsal feelers is a cylindrical style Papil (?), which may be regarded as a rudimentary gill. The outer ventral filament has the same length as the ventral fins and is pointed, the inner filament is hardly half as long and rounded. The tail filaments are somewhat longer than the dorsal filaments.

When O. Fabricius reports: "Habitat frequentissemo ad litora maris inter lapides, testaceae, radices fucorum, in fundo limosa et alibi. Et sieus Nereis verrucosa inter Nereides, sic haec inter aphroditas vulgatissima," then I can add to this that all this holds with respect to the existence of this species in Danish waters, but that it here never reaches the size as it does on Greenland's coasts.

Specimens have been sent from several points on the entire coast of Greenland.

(p. 168) Lepidonote punctata Orsd.
Polynoe punctata Sav.
Aphrodita punctata Faun. groenl. Zool. Dan. 3, p. 25.
Aphrodita squamata Lin.
Vix Polynoe squamata Aud. et Edw.

Corpore oblongo utringque aequaliter obtuso, segmentis 25, tentaculo medio palpis et cirris tentacularibus duobus maximis ferme ejusdem longitudinis glabris, capite postice exciso, branchiarum scabriuscularum paribus 12, setis pinnae superioris vix prominulis, pinnae inferioris porrectis apiceum versus parum serratis curvatis.

Of this species I have not had any specimens from Greenland's coasts, but O. Fabricius reports that it is rarissimia there. It exists in several places on our coasts, for instance, between Frederikshavn and Skagen it is very abundant. When there is not doubt about that this species is Müller's and Fabricius' Aphrodita punctata and Linne's A. squamata, it will be reasonable that is different from the species which is described from the coasts of France as Polynoe squamata and which is supposed to be identical with Aphrodita punctata Mül. and Fabr. This species does not have clubformed but pointed gropers which are not longer than the longest of the feelthreads, while with Polynoe squamata Aud. and Edw. they are reported to be twice as long.

Gen. Pholoe Johnston

Pholoe (?) minuta Orsd. fig. 3, 4, 8, 9, 16.
Aphrodita minuta O. Fabr. Fauna. groenl. p. 314.

Segmentis 56--58, branchiarum paribus 43, capite ? utraque pinnae ferme in unam coadunata, setis rami superioris subulatis minutissimis, curvatis, rami inferioris multo longioribus rectis falcatis, cirris nullis.

The length is hardly 8 lines, the width 1 1/3 lines. It has 56-58 segments, 43 pairs of gills which as placed one pair on each segment with exception of the last which covers several segments.

The head was so damaged on the few specimens which were sent down of this species that I cannot describe its head or its supplements.

The fins (fig. 9) are almost grown together to one, although a little separated in the end. Both the dorsal filament and the ventral are lacking. The bristles (fig. 16) are very small in the dorsal fins, hairlike, curved, and pointed (a), in the ventral fin they are much larger, alike and sickle-formed (b).

The gills are kidney shaped and smooth, with a lighter oval spot in the middle and a simple row hair, which are far apart, on the outer and latter edge (fig. 8). The color is dirty green.

With respect to its existence Fabricius reports: Habitat in fundo argilloso maris procul a littore, minus frequens. Few specimens are sent down from Godthaab.

(p. 170) 2nd Family. Amphinomaceae

Gen. Euphrosyna (sic) Sav.

Euphrosyna borfalis (sic) Örsd. fig. 23-27

Corpore ovato-oblongo flavescente; segmentis 26-27, prominente *) capitis parte elongato-ovali, tenteculo unico semigloboso, branchiis 9-10 bi-tripartitis, cirro dorsali nullo.

The length is 10 lines and the width 4-5 lines. The back is rather arched and almost entirely covered by dorsal fin's numerous bristles and gills, so that only a stripe in the middle is bare. It is a little smaller in back tha in front (fig. 25).

The projecting part of the head (fig. 23b) is extended oval; in front of this sits a couple of large, black eyes, and before these a very short globular feeler (a). The mouth opening is seen on the flat, ventral side as a little cross-split between the 3rd and 4th sgments. Before the mouth are two oval papillae (fig. 24).

The dorsal fins are very long, when it reaches, in form of a little fold in the skin, almost to the middle of the dorsal side (fig. 26a). The ventral fins, on the other hand are very short (b). In these the bristles are very lightly collected, while they are rather far apart in the dorsal fins. The bristles are alike and forked (fig. 27). Of the 9-10 gills the most are divided into three parts, others into two or only simple. The ventral filament (c) has the same length as the gills.

The color of the specimens kept in spirits is pale yellow, somewhat darker on the flat ventral side.

(p. 171) Few specimens are sent down from Godthaab.

Since this is the northernmost representative of this genus, which otherwise inhabits the warm seas, I thought that "borealis" was a fitting name for this species. It is easily separated from Euphrosyna myrtosa, which is the species nearest related to it, by the absence of dorsal filaments and by the form of the gills, which do not end in oval leaves but are threadlike.

Remarks. This genus, whose entire organization is so extraordinarily peculiar, gives a proof that the cirri in scaleworms physiologically considered are not different from the gills; for the gills which are split are altogether identical in structure to cirri. Cirri should be looked on as rudimentary gills.

*) With this is understood the part, which Savigy and Audouin & Edwards called carunculus. It is clear that it is nothing else but the projection part of the head and should not have its own name.

3rd Family. Euniceae.

Gen. Onuphis Aud. & Edw.

Charact. gener. emendatus.

Caput appendicibus tentacularibus septem, quatuor antice, tribus in media superficie, instructum. Segmenta duo anteriora longitudine et forma pinnarum et setarnm (sic) a sequentibus valde discrepantia et branchiarum loco cirro superiore et inferiore praedita, setis (vel pitius aciculis) validis partim rectis partim apice curvatis. In ceteris segmentis cirri inferioris loco mamilla semiglobosa; setae triformes, aliis gracilioribus curvatis acuminatis, aliis minutissimis rectis apcie infundibuliformibus.

Heretofore the most peculiar characteristic of the genus Onuphis has not been held out as a characteristic, namely those (p. 172) segments which differ from the others very prominently. By the form and position of the fins and the quality of the bristles it is apparent that they help in seizing the food and lead it into the mouth, and are in that a little reminiscent of the condition so characteristic of the crustaceae in their foremost organs of locomotion. It may also be regarded as an important characteristic that there are four kinds of bristles of very different form. Such a peculiar organization is most likely a sign of a very peculiar mode of living of the animal.

Onuphis Eschrichtii Örsd. fig. 33-41, 45.

Corpore supra convexo subtus plano, segmentis 50-60, stria transversa fusca in quoque segmento, cirris postoccipitalibus longitudineum capitis aequantibus, pinnis (in segmentis duobus primis exeptis) brevissimis, branchiis bipartitit\s basi pinnarum affixis.

The body consists of 50-60 rings, which, with the exception of the two front rings which are much elongated, all are of about the same length. The pipe (fig. 45) consists of a strong not quite transparent membrance which is covered with larger or smaller pieces of conchylishells.

The head is almost quadratic (fig. 33-34). The two foremost of the 7 feelerlike appendices (a) are cut off very short. The ones following them (b) have about half the length of the 3 (c) which are situated in the middle of the head. At the base of the outer ones of these are two small round eyes. The neck ring is a little shorter than the head. By its upper edge are two filaments which have about the same length as the head. The mouthopening is a cross-split in the middle of the ring which is the neck (fig. 34). The so-called lower lips (more correctly lower jaws) are two rather transparent plates of honr (fig. 35). Of the three pairs of real jaws the outer one is strangly curved and without teeth; the jaws situated inside (p. 173) these are much wider, less curved, and equipped with ten teeth which are turned downwards.

The first two segments are in every respect different from the latter ones. They are (1) almost twice as long as the latter ones, (2) the fins are much longer and shoot forwards, (3) at the end of these fins there are threadlike elongations (fig. 38b). Besides (4) they have one simple gill (a) and (5) a ventral filament (c) and (6) the bristles have a peculiar shape. They are very thick, brown, curbed at the end and end abruptly (fig. 41a). The following six rings are also a little different from the rest. They have also one simple gill, but lack the ventral filament (fig. 39). In place of the bentral filament is a halfcircular knot, which increases in size on the following segments; these have a very short fin. About where the fin goes over on the flat back is a gill composed of two parts.

There are three kinds of bristles, some larger whose outer very pointed part forms an angle with the lower part of the same bristle, others thinner and smaller, whose foremost part forms a funnel, that is composed of a great number of threads standing by the side of each other and on one side has a triangular cut (fig. 37). A third kind is most alike those in the foremost rings, but are hookshaped (fig. 41b). The needles (fig. 41c) are light yellow. Specimens conserved in spirits have a pale yellow color, but the first half of each ring is brown.

All specimens are received from Godthaab.

This species is separated from the other species in this genus vary plainly by the very short fins and the gills, which have two parts.

(p. 174) 4th Family. Nereideae.

Gen. Nereis Aut.

Of the many species, which have been brought home of the genus Nereis, some are so outstanding with respect to the peculiar organization of appendices laterales that it becomes imperative to transfer them to another genus. The species whose body consist of two completely separate parts have been separated from the genus Nereis in the following discussion. The first part is round and the last part flatter (fig. 50, 51, 54) and on the last part these species are provided with knots at the base of the dorsal and ventral filaments, and a lamella on the end of the ventral fin.

These species are referred to a new genus, which I have thought it appropriate to name Heteronereis because it seems as if the last part of the body belongs to another species than the first part.

These genera could be characterized in the following way:

Nereis (Lin.) Örsd.

Segmenta omnia et forma et appendicibus aequalia. Nulla mamilla branchiali nec ad basin cirri superioris nec sub cirro inferiore, nec lamella in apice rami inferioris. Setae partim spinosae (poils en arréte), partim falcatae.

Heteronereis Örsd.

Corpus ex duabus partibus et forma et appendicibus inter se discrepantibus constans; parte anteriore teriti appendicibus ut in genere Nereidi praedita, parte posteriore vero depressa; in hac mamilla branchiali ad (p. (p. 175) basin cirri superioris, lamella in apice pinnae inferioris, cirro inferiore in mamilla bipartita affixo. Setae partim spinosae partim cultratae.

As it is very difficult to draw any sharp distinction between the gills and the fins, all (mostly four) are looked upon as side-projections in the genus Nereis belonging to the fins; although, at least in some species, the gills are in the main confined to the upper and lower part of the projections. Each fin is then supposed to consist of two lobes. The bodies, which distinguish genus Heteronereis, at the base of the cirri are called gill-knots (mamillae branchiales).

Nereis pelagica Lin. fig. 52, 53, 55, 58, 59.
Nereis verrucosa Mül. Faun. groenl. p. 292
-- pelagica Syst nat.

Corpore tereti, capite elongato-conico, palpis maximis, cirrorum tentacularium duobus longissimis 4-6 segmenta sequentia juncta longitudine aequantibus, segmento postoccipitali reliquis ferme duplo longiore, ceteris segmentis 80 omnibus ejusdem ferme longitudinis, quatnor pinnarum lobis abbrebiatis rotundatis inter se similibus (excepto tertio paulo breviore) cirro superiore prope apiceum pinnae superioris, cirro inferiore ad basin pinnae inferioris.

This is one of the largest species in Nereis. It reaches a length of 7-8 inches and a width of 3 to 4 lines. It has from eighty to ninety segments, which are altogether cylindrical and have about the same length all over the body. They are three or four times as wide as they are long. The head is long and coneshaped. The feelers have half the length of the (p. 176) head. The large gropers reach as far forward as the feelers. The outer division, or joint of the gropers is very short. The longest of the feelers are just as long as the ring of the neck and the next four or five segments. The mouth, which can be protruded to form a proboscis, shows, in front when it is protruded, 2 groups of threadlike knots both on the upper-flat (fig. 59) and the underflat (fig. 58). On the back of the underflat, on the contrary, in a connected row, and on the upper flat, four small groups. The jaws (fig. 55) are strongly twisted and very indefinite threadlike projections. The ring of the neck is almost as long as the two following rings put together.

The fins are proportionally short (fig. 56) almost grown together to one fine with four uniform, short, rounded patches. They are much longer on the last rings than on the first or middle rings. The dorsal filament is situated near the end of the upper patch, but the ventral filament on the contrary at the base of the lowest patch.

Part of the bristles are sickle formed (fig. 52), part needled formed (fig. 70). The color is copper brown, shining, often strongly iridescent, with time it changes to a dirty green color. What Fabricius reports about this species from Greenland, "Habitat vulgatissime in fundo maris inter radices ulvarum (?: Laminariarum), sum lapidibus et intra lestas vacuas", holds true with respect to Denmark also. It is also found by England's coasts and has then an existence from 50-70 degrees north latitude.

Specimens are sent from many different points of Greenland's coast between Umanak and Julianehaab.

Nereis diversicolor Mül.
Die bunte Nereide Mül. v. Würm. 104, Tab. VI.
Nereis diversicolor Mül. Fauna groenl. p. 291.

Corpore 3" longo, 2 1/2''' lato depresso fusco vel fusco virescente, segmentis 70 utrinque regulariter

(p. 177) decrescentibus, capite conico postice non exciso, oculis parvulis rotundis, tentaculis capite ter brevioribus, palpis mediocribus, cirrorum tentacularium longissimis aeque longis ac segmentis 3-6 anterioribus junctis, segmento postoccipitali vix dimidio longiore quam ceteris, pinnis elongatis approximatis, superiore distinct, inferiore vero indistincte trilobo, lobis conicis acuminatis, cirro superiore ter-quater breviore pinna ferme in media ejus superficie, inferiore paulo breviore ad basin pinnae inferioris.

I have not seen any specimens of this species from Greenland coasts, where it according to Fabricius' report is not common. By Denmark's coast it is one of the most common species. It has been referred to a special species of genus Nereis, with five feelers (three feelers and two gropers) by Audouin and Milne Edwards. But this classification is based on a mistake in O.F. Müller's drawing and description (V Würm Pl. VI), because it has actually only two feelers.

Gen. Heteronereis Örsd.

Heteronereis paradoxa Örsd. fig. 50, 63, 64, 66.
Nereis longissima Johnst.? Annals of, nat. hist. Vol. V. p. 178.

Capite subpentagono longitudine segmenta duo segquentia juncta aequante; parte antica corporis ex segmentis 50 constante, pinnarum hujus partis lobo primo (c:summo), secundo et quarto elongato-conicis acuminatis, tertio brevissimo rotundato, cirro superiore aeque longo ac lobo primo; in parte postica lobo pinnarum primo, secundo et quarto-elongatis acuminatis, tertio brevioure subclavato, cirro superiore prominentiis indistinctis praedito.

This pretty species reaches a length of about 9 to 10 inches and a width of six lines. The first round part is formed of fifty (p. 178) segments, which are almost one line each long. The last part is formed of about two hundred segments, of which the first are not even half as long as those which make up the first part of the body.

The head is comparatively small, pentagonal and is as long as the two following segments. The feelers are half as long as the head. The lower division or joint on the gropers is very large and reaches as far forward as the feelers. The higher joint is very small. The longest of the feelers are hardly as long as the three following segments together.

The neck-ring is a little longer than the following segments.

Of the four patches of the fins on the first part of the body the second, the third, and the fourth (Örsted means the first, second, and fourth patch, as can be understood by comparing the drawings with his description: translator's note) are very long, cone-shaped and pointed (fig. 63 abd), the third (c) patch is, on the contrary very short and rounded. The dorsal filament too is long and almost as wide as the first patch, to whose base it is fastened. The ventral filament is also wide but only half as long.

On the last part (maybe this "last part" should read first part instead of the other; compare fig. 50: translator's note) of the body the fins are very long (fig. 64 & 66) so that they, despite the fact that the body here is almost two lines smaller than it is in the last part (Last part should be first part of the body. Örsted couldn't mean that the last part of the body is two lines smaller than the last part of the body: translator's note), reach as far out to the side as they do there. On the first segments of the last part the upper fins are much longer than the lower fins (fig. 64), on the segments following they are about just as long (fig. 66). The knots on the gills at the base of the dorsal filament is just as large as the one on which the ventral filament is fastened. The first, second, and fourth patch (fig. 64 bce) (Örsted must mean figure 66bce because fig. 64 is not lettered, and figure 66 compares with the description: translator's note) of the fins are pointed, but the one on which the leaflike lobe is situated is rounded. The dorsal and ventral filaments are of about the same length. The dorsal filament is indistinctly notched. The bristles are needle formed on the first part of the body and blade formed on the last part (fig. 69).

The color is blue-grey in the specimens kept in spirits.

Only one very well preserved specimen was sent from Godthaab.

(p. 179) Heteronereis arctica Örsd. fig. 50*, 51, 60, 65, 68, 70*.

Capite elongato conico 4-5 segmenta sequentia juncta longitudine aequante, maxillis parum tortis crenulatis; parte antica corporis ex 20 segmentis constante, lobis pinnarum partis anticae omnibus abbreviatis rotundatis, cirro superiore quater vel quinquies longiore quam lobo primo; in parte postica lobo primo subaci\uminato, ceteris abbreviatis rotundatis, cirro superiore prominentiis 9-10 distinctis praedito.

The length is three inches. The width of the first part of the body is three lines and of the last part four lines. The first part consists of twenty segments, the latter part of sixty to seventy segments.

The head is comparatively large, cone formed, and as long as the four following segments together. It is marked by a triangular, light spot at the base. The feelers have one third of the length of the head, and the gropers reach just as far forward as the feelers. The longest of the feelthreads reach to the sixth segment. The toothlike knots are divided on the mouth, which can be protruded and take the form of a proboscis, in the same way as these knots are divided on Nereis pelagica (fig. 60). The jars are wide and thick with three or four rounded projections (fig. 50*). The neck-ring is as long as one and a half of the following segments.

On the front part of the body the two upper rounded patches of the fin are somewhat longer than the lower ones (fig. 65). The dorsal filament is four or five times as long as the fin. The ventral filament is one third shorter than the dorsal one. On the last part of the body the patches are all rounded, only the one on top is a little more pointed than the rest. The leaflike lobe at the base of the dorsal filament is comparatively much smaller than in the preceeding species. The dorsal filament has nine projections on the lower side. The outer one of these projections is the largest. The bristles are knifelike (fig. 69) and spread out like a fan.

The color of the specimens conserved in spirits is a pale bluish red.

Specimens are sent down from many different points between Halsteenborg and Julianehaab.

(p. 180) Heteronereis assimilis Örsd. fig. 54, 61, 72.
Nereis renalis Johnst. ? loc. cit. p. 176.

Capite elongato-conico, 2-3 segmenta sequentia juncta longitudine aequante, maxillis valde tortis serratis; parte antica corporis ex 20 segmentis constante, lobis pinnarum hujus partis omnibus abbreviatis rotundatis cirro superiore quater vel quinquies longiore quam lobo, primo, in parte postica lobis pinnarum omnibus rotundatis, primo et in primis quarto multo longiore quam secundo et tertio, cirro superiore absque prominentiis.

This species as it is pictured (fig. 54) differs at the first glance from Heteronereis arctica by the fact that the difference between the two parts of the body is here less marked, because the whole body is rather round and the rings and the fins are not much different in length on the front or last part of the body. But there are in these respects a greadt deal of transcendental forms, so that one cannot consider the differences as basic which are found in the form of the body and the relative length of the segments and the fins.

This species differs from Heteronereis arctica in the following respects.

1. The head is not as large in respect to the body, but the neck-ring on the contrary is larger.

2. The jaws are longer, thinner, more twisted and equipped with more, and more pointed notches.

3. The head lacks the triangular spot.

4. The fins on the body's last part are shorter and thicker. The leaflike lobe at the end of the ventral fins's upper patch is smaller. The second patch on the contrary is larger than in Heteronereis arctica.

5. The dorsal filament lacks projections.

6. The bristles are almost all needleshped and sit lightly collected.

7. The color is usually somewhat darker.

This species all in all seems to be more robust than the others.

It is sent here from the same points as H. arctica.

Gen. Syllis Sav.

Syllis armillaris Örsd.
Nereis armillaris Mül. Zool. Dan. prodr. p. 217.
Geperlte Nereide Mül. v. Würm. p. 150. T. IV.
Nereis armillaris Fauna groenl. p. 294.
Nereisyllis ornata Blainv? Dict. d. se. nat. artel. vers. p. 473.
Lycastis armillaris Sav. op. cit.

Corpore 73''' longo, 1''' lato teretiusculo flavescente, striis duabus transversis in singulo segmentorum 150, capite cordato, palpis maximis longioribus capite, cirrorum tentacularium duobus paribus, cirri 13 articulatis, articulis duplo latioribus quam longis, pinna cylindrica apice truncata, aciculis ternis connatis, setis falcatis subquinis.

This species, of which I have seen no specimens from Greenland, but which I have had opportunity to observe at our coasts, stands closest to Syllis maculata Edw. (Cuvier regne animal Annelides par Milne Edwards). It is easily separated from this species by the shape of the head, which is heart shaped, and by the presence of cirri tentacularum which are absent in Syllis maculata.

(p. 182) According to Fabricius it is found, "in sabulo marino profunde se condens". At our coast it never exists except on a claybottom.

Gen. Ioida Johnston.

Annals of nat. hist. Vol. IV p. 231.

There is just a single incomplete specimen of this species, which belongs to the scaleworms that Hr. Möller contributed to the Royal Zoological Museum. Despite that the head and front rings are lacking I don't think there can be any doubt about that it belongs to the genus Ioida. It coincoides with this genus in the structure of the side-supplements, and it is from these that the most important characteristics of this genus are taken. Here are found two fins (fig. 101) an upper one with very long hairlike bristles and a lower one with the same structure as in the genus Syllis with sickle shaped bristles (fig. 100). From the form and the size of the body one could believe that it is the same as the species Johnston has described under the name Ioida macrophthalma, (l.l), but it can hardly be so because he reports that his species lacks the ventral filament.

Gen. Polybostrichus* Orsd.

(* footnote contains derivation of name, not translated by SK: LH)

Corpus lineare depressum ex duabus partibus, anteriore et posteriore, forma inter se discrepantibus, constans. Caput appendicibus tentacularibus 11 instructum, palpi duo minuti, quator tentacula, cirri tentaculares quinque. Os inferum absque maxillis. Oculi duo. In antica corporis parte pinnae connatae setis falcatis praeditae; in (p. 183) postica pinnae duae discretae, superioris setae siplices, inferioris compositae falcatae. Cirrus superior diversae formae in antica et postica corporis parte, cirrus inferior nullus.

This genus is rather isolated in family of Nereis with respect to the supplements of the head. In this respect it shows relationship with Onuphis. By the structure of the fins it is closely related to the Ioida.

Polybostrichus longosetosus Orsd. fig. 62, 67, 71
Nereis prismatica Mül.? Fauna groenl. p. 302
Naturhistorie.-Selskabets Skrifter 5 B. p. 170 Tab. IV fig. 17-20

Corpore lineari-depresso, 1''' longo, 3/4''' lato, ex xegmentis 60-65 constante; segmentis 40-45 ejusdem ferme longitudinis, ceteris posticam corporis partem versus regalariter descrescentibus; capite rectangulari duplo latiore quam longo, duobus tentaculis, altero super alterum affixo un qaoque angulo anteriore capitis, cirris tentacularibus basi capitis affixis seriem transversalem formantibus, duobus exterioribus et medio longissimis dimidiam corporis langitudinem superantibas, duobus intermediis multo brevioribus; antica corporis parte ex segmentis sex constante, a ceteris annulo, pinnis distituto, separata; in hae pinnis cirris conicis fluxosis basi incrasatis preaditis; in postica vero corporis parte pinnis prismaticis cirris brevioribus filiformibus instructis latitudinem corporis longitudine aequantibus, cirri caudalibus nullis.

The body is an inch long and a line wide, and rather flat. There are sixty to sixty-five segments, of these the first forty to forty-five are of almos the same length, namely twice as wide as long. All the rest are much shorter and decrease in length towards the end of the body (fig. 62).

(p. 184) The head is quadratic and has a quadratic notch in front. Under this notch are two short gropers. Four feelers go out to the side and are so long that, when they are held back, they reach to the tenth segment. There are two large eyes. At the base of the head are five cirri tentaculares, of which three are half as long as the body as the two which sit between these are hardly one third as long as that. The mouth-opening is a little cross opening at the base of the feelers. There is no neck segment.

The six first rings are separated from the following ones by a short segment which lacks fins. The fins on these segments are cone-shaped and a little shorter than on the following segments. There is no distinction between dorsal and ventral fin, both are completely fused together and provided with a group of bristles which are short and have a very peculiar shape (fig. 67a). The dorsal filaments are much longer than in the following segments, very thick at the base and hooked (? - "taadformede": SK) at the end.

On the following segments the fins are similarly shorn off at the end, so that they form prisms (? - "Prismer": SK). They are as long as the body is wide. The dorsal fin is separated from the ventral fin by a notch which turns downward (fig. 71). The bristles in it are longer than the body's width. They are flat and pointed at the ends (fig. 67c), but in the dorsal fin they have the same shape as in the six first rings. The dorsal filament sits all the way out on the end of the fin's upper flat and is threadlike.

The color of the specimens kept in spirits is dark brown.

It is not easy to decide whether this species should be transported to Nereis bifrons or prismatica. According to Fabricius' description it is like the first in the body but like the last in the structure of the feelers. Perhaps it is different from both. It seems to be close to Nereis corniculata, Zool. Dan. Fab. 52, also.

Specimens are only sent from Godthaab.

(p. 185) Gen. Eteone Sav.

Caput distinctum, os exsertile absqve maxillis. Tentacula quatuor brevia. Cirrorum tentacularium paria duo brevissimorum. Branchiae conicae vel oviformes vel. sublamelliformes duae, superior et inferior; branchia superior parva, basi corpori affixa horizontalis.

In this species all supplements are very small, It is different from Phyllodoce and Eulalia in that it has two pairs of cirri tentaculares and by form and position of the gills. From Eulalia thereto it differs also by the absene of the fifth feeler.

Eteone longa Sav. fig. 20, 28
Nereis longa Fauna groenl. p. 300. - Naturhistorie-Selskabets Skrifter p. 1717
Tab. IV fig. 11-13
Eteone longa Sav. op. cit.

Corpore tereti, capite elongato conico, branchia superiore oviformi a pinna parum remota.

O. Fabricius reports having seen specimens of nine inches in length. I have not had opportunity to study any ones longer than 3-4 inches and 3/4 lines wide. They were composed of eighty to ninety segments that are four and five times as wide as they are long.

The head is coneshaped and as long as three or four of the following segments together. The feelers are short and pointed. The eyes are almost at the base of the head. The mouth which can be protruded to form a proboscis reaches a length equal to eighteen to twenty of the first rings. Two pairs of feelers sit on the first ring after the head and are about half as long as the head.

The dorsal gills (fig. 28) are oval seen from the side, seen from above on the contrary they are conical (fig. 20). They (p. 186) stand out uniformly from the side and are separated from the fins by a space which is half as long as the dorsal gills and a little shorter than the ventral gills, with which it is closely connected. The last segment is twice as long as wide and provided with a large oval leaflike lobe or rather papilla as it is very thick.

With respect to color and habitat we get the following from Fabricius: "The small specimens are white, partly milkcolored. The larger individuals are pale-red or green-gray in the middle of the dorsal side, and the largest are pale-green or seq-green in the middle. It is found by the coasts so close to land that they can be caught at low tide. It lives in holes which it bores in the seabottom."

A great number of examples are sent down from several points between Umanak and Fredrikshaab.

Eteone flava Sav. fig. 47
Nereis flava Fauna groen. p. 299
Den gule Nereide. Naturhistorie-Selskabets Skrifter p. 168 Tab. IV fig. 8-10
Eteone flava Sav. op. cit.

Corpore depresso, capite-elongato conico, branchia superirore compressa subrotunda pinna adpressa.

I have only seen one single poorly preserved specimen of this species. It had a length of one and a half inches and was about one line in width. Fabricius found specimens of twenty-seven lines length and two lines width.

It is different from Eteone longa 1st) by the form of the body which is flatter, 2nd) by the segments, which are shorter sor that the gills of the different segments touch each other, and 3rd) by the gills which are almost round and stand close to fins so that they touch them (fig. 47).

The color, Fabricius reports, is orange.

It is found on the seabottom between roots of sea weed.

(p. 187) Eteone cylindrica Örsd. fig. 42, 49, 57

Corpore tereti, capite abbreviato conico, branchia superiore compressa subovalis a pinna valde remota.

The few specimens I have seen of this species lacked the last part of the body so that I cannot give the length of the whole body. The longest was four inches long and 2-1/2 lines wide, and the number of the segmentswas one hundred twelve. The segments are absolutely cylindrical and five times as wide as they are long. The head forms a short cut-off cone (fig. 57). The feel-threads are a little longer than the feelers. The dorsal gills are heartshaped and set off from the fins by a wide space (fig. 49).

The color of the specimens in spirits is chesnut brown, which glistens with a spectrum of colors. Specimens are only sent from Godthaab.

Gen. Eulalia Sav.

Caput distinctum, os exsertile absque maxillis. Tentacula quinque brevia acuminata. Cirrorum tentacularium paria quatuor. Branchiae lamelliformes duae, superior non rectangularis basi corpori affixa obliqua nullam dorsi partem obtegens, inferior horizontalis pinna adpressa.

Note: Savigny thought that Nereis viridis Mül. and Nereis maculata Mül. ought to be put in an (sic) own genus, "Eulalia", yet without having any other knowledge about these species than what he obtained from Müller's and Fabricius' defective descriptions (Systeme des Annelides p. 45). But Nereis maculata is a true Phyllodoce. There remains then Nereis viridis which forms the type for the genus Eulalia. This species is, to be sure, conducted to Phyllodoce by Audouin & Milne Edwards and given the name Phyllodoce clavigera. But in several respects it is so different that it certainly may be consented to conduct its own genus, for which Savigny's name, which is appropriate, may be retained.

(p. 188) This genus forms the transition from Eteone to Phyllodoce. It is particularly characterized by the presence of five feelers and by the position and size of the dorsal gills. The gills are never rectangular, somewhat larger than in Eteone, but not as large as in Phyllodoce, and they are situated (? - "skraat", possibly diagonally: SK) out to the side, not horizontally as in Eteone, nor vertically as in Phyllodoce. The body besides is never as flat as in Phyllodoce. The segments are comparatively longer and separated from each other by larger or smaller incisions.

Eulalia viridis Sav.
Phyllodoce viridis Johnston. Annals of nat. hist. Vol. IV p. 288
Phyllodoce clavigera Aud. et. Edw. op. cit. p. 226 fig. 9-13
Nereis viridis Mül. Fauna groenl. p. 297
Die grüne Nereide. Mül. v. Würm p. 163 V. XI

Corpore tereti viridi, capite conico antice truncato, cirrorum tentacularium pare primo in segmento primo, secundo et tertio in secundo et quarto in tertio segmento affixo, branchia superiore oblique lineari lanceolata acuminata, branchia inferiore elliptica paulo longiore quam pinna.

The body reach a length of two and half inches and a width of one and a half lines. It consists of sixty to severty rings, which all have about the same length; they are namely about three times as wide as they are long. The head is almost twice as wide as it is long and a little wider at the base than the first segment from which it is separated by a little incision on each side. The feelers are mostly directed straight out. The first pair of feel-threads sit on the first ring. On the second ring are two pairs of feel-threads of which the lower ones have about the same length as the ones on the first segment. The higher ones on the contrary are almost twice as long. Those sitting on the third segment are of the same (p. 189) length as these. The dorsal gills are obliquely line-lancet-shaped and are directed straight out from the side. The ventral gills are a little longer than the fins to which it sits very closely.

It varies much in color from green-yellow to dark-green.

This species is rather common in Danish waters. It is also found at England's and northern French coasts and seems to be common over the whole North between the 70° - 59° northern latitude.

Specimens are sent down from several different points on the entire coast of Greenland.

Gen. Phyllodoce Sav.

Caput distinctum, os exsertile absque maxillis. Tentacula quatuor brevia acuminata. Cirrorum tentacularium paria quatuor. Branchiae lamelliformes duae, superior magna saepius rectangularis parte inferiore marginis lateralis corpori affixa, verticalis, partem dorsi obtegens, branchia inferior horizontalis pinna adpressa.

The genus contains the largest of the species which earlier had been classified under Phyllodoce in the sense under which it was understood by Aud. and Milen Edwards. It is easily distinguished from the two genera described above by the presence of four feelers and four feel-threads and by the form and position of the dorsal gills. They are rectangular and often very large, and fastened to the body by the lower part of the inside edge so that they are vertically or at least diagonally situated over the back and cover a part of the back.

Phyllodoce? incisa Örsd. fig. 44

Corpore virescenti teretiusculo, capite conico duplo longiore quam lato, cirris tentacularibus in segmentis

(p. 190) duobus anterioribus affixis, segmentis mediis longitudine latitudinem corporis aequantibus subhexagonis, ceteris utramque corporis extremitateum versus reglariter descrescentibus, branchia superiore subpentagona subhorizontali.

I have only seen one badly preserved specimen of this species. It has a length of four inches and a width of half a line. There are 120 segments. The head is twice as long as it is wide, cone-shaped and is not separated from the first segment by any incision. The four shortest feelpthreads sit on the first segment. They are about the same length and about one third shorter than those on the next segment.

The segments on the first part of the body are four times as wide as they are long but increase in length towards the middle of the body so that they there are about as long as wide. They are separated from each other by deep incisions, making them almost hexagonal. Toward the end of the body they again decrease in size. Only the last segment is twice as long as wide and lacked the end leaflike lobes on the specimens studied, but these had probably fallen off.

The dorsal gills on the middle segments are obliquely pentagonal with rounded corners.

The color of the specimens kept in spirits was almost gone, but seemed to have been green.

The single specimen was sent from Godthaab.

Note: I do not doubt that closer studies of this species, than a less-well preserved specimen makes possible, will show (p. 191) the neccessity of leading this species to its own genus* which will form the transition from Eulalia to Phyllodoce. It is different from Phyllodoce by the long and notched segment and the position of the leaflike lobes, and it is different from Eulalia by the lack of the fifth feeler. But I believe that, for the present, it is best to refer it to Phyllodoce.

* Til denne Slaegt vil da rimeligviis Phyllodoce maculata Johnst. og Phyl. bilineata Johnst. Annals of nat. hist. Vol. IV. p. 227 blive at henföre. (Not translated by SK)

Phyllodoce maculata Blanv. (vix Johnston) fig. 46 & 48
Nereis maculata Fauna groenl. p. 298
Eulalia maculata Sav.

Corpore viridi-flavescente maculato depresso, capite cordato paulo longiore quam lato antice rotundato, cirris tentacularibus in tribus segmentis anterioribus affixis, segmentis brevissimis, branchia superiore subrectangulari verticali, branchia inferiore subovali horizontali, setis capillaribus 15-20.

Length four inches, width one and a half lines, 150 flat segments. The head is heartshaped and rounded in front. On the first ring are two feel-threads which are long enough to reach to the sixth segments if directed backwards. On the second ring are two of the same length and above those another pair a little longer and on the third segment is a pair of the same length as these last ones.

the segments are only 1/7 - 1/8 as long as the body is wide (fig. 46b). The dorsal gills are almost rectangular, a little smaller below than above. They are so situated that in the middle of the body they cover most part of the back. The ventral gills are somewhat longer than the fins and rounded at the end.

The color of the specimens kept in spirits is a greenish brown.

Specimens are sent from Holsteenborg and Jacobshavn.

The species which Johnston (Annals of nat. hist. Vol. IV p. 227. Pl. VII fig. 1-3.) under the name of Phyllodoce maculata is certainly from our species.

(p. 192) Phyllodoce groenlandica Örsd. fig. 19, 20, 22, 29-32

Corpore viridi depresso, capite cordato paulo latiore quam longo antice truncato, cirris tentacularibus in segmentis duobus anterioribus affixis, segmentis brevissimis, branchia superiore subrectangulari verticali, branchia inferiore subelliptica in mediis segmentis apice sursum versa, setis capillaribus 30-40.

This large and beautiful species can reach a length of ten to eleven inches and a width of four lines. The body is made up of 300-350 flattened segments. The ventral flat has a very deep and wide furrow running lengthwise.

The head (fig. 21) is heartshaped and one half times as wide as long. The difference between the first and last part of the proboscis (mouth which can be protruded in the shape of a proboscis) is very marked. The first shorter part (b) is made up of a very thick leatherlike membrane provided with six furrows running lengthwise and a great number of wrinkles running crosswise. In the end are 17 short papillae that are nothing else than the ends of the equal number of folds running lengthwise on the inner surface of the proboscic. The latter part (a) is twice as long and is made up of a much more moist and thinner membrane and it is equipped with twelve rows of eggshaped papillae.

The first pair of cirri tentaculares are not placed on any ring, but in between the head and the first ring. They are just as long as those sitting on the first segment, as long as the five first segments together. The two pairs on the second segment are as long as nine segments. On the midle of the body they rings are 5-6 times as wide as they are long.

The dorsal gills of the first segment are secured on a very large stem (fig. 30) and they are wider but not as long here as on the segments in the middle (fig. 31), where it is secured on a smaller stem. On the last segments both the gills and their stems decrease in size (fig. 32). The ventral gills on the first segments are pointing straight out from the side (fig. 30). On the middle segments, on the contrary, they point diagonally upwards (fig. 31) but again on the last segments

(p. 193) they occupy a more horizontal position (fig. 32). The fins are equipped with about four bristles of the same shape as with Phyllodoce laminosa.

It has a very dark grey-green color which it retains after having been in spirits for a long time.

Specimens are sent down from the most different points on Greenland's coast.

Note: Plate II fig. 22 shows the first part of the body cut open from the ventral side in order to show the proboscis, when it is not protruded. It stretches in form of a thin canal from the mouth opening to the 39th segment where it opens into the intestines. From the lower part a great number of muscles proceed to both sides. The ends of these muscles are fastened in the layer of muscles that lies under the dorsal side. They serve to protrude the last part of the proboscis (b) up into the first part while it is extended out of the mouth-opening.

Gen. Nephtys Cuv.

Nephtys caeca Örsd. fig. 73-74, 77-86.
Nereis caeca Fauna groenl. p. 304. naturhistorie Selskabets Skrifter p. 185. T. IV fig. 24-29
Aonis caeca Sav. Aud. et Milne Edw.

Parte lamellosa * pinnae superioris subovali subduplo longiore parte setigera, cirro superiore nullo, spatio inter pinnas altitudinem singulae pinnae subaequante, parte lamellosa pinnae inferioris horizontali, paulo longiore parte setiera obtusa, setis sparsis aliis ensiformibus serratis aeque longis ac pinnis, aliis minoribus subulatis.

* With the genus Nephtys the fines are composed of a knot-shaped part in which the bristles are secured and a leaflike part.

This species can reach a length of about 8 inches and a width of seven lines. It has 125-130 flattened segments which are almost one line long in the middle of the body.

(p. 194) The head is pentagonal with four feelers, of which two proceed from the two first corners of the head and the other two go out from the side of the latter part of the head. The mouth-opening (fig. 84a) has a lip (b) on each side. The proboscis is in front provided with 24 papillae cloven at the end (fig. 86) and on the upper side with 24 rows of pointed blades, six in each row. They decrease in size behind so that the last are very small. The jaws are very small (fig. 83).

The dorsal fin is separated from the ventral fin by a space almost as wide as one of the fins (fig. 77). The dorsal lobe is oval and about twice as long as the fin. The ventral lobe is as long as the fin and twice as wide at the end as at the base. The gills are curved and proceed from the end of the dorsal fin, at the base it has a smaller branch. The ventral filament is not as thick as in N. Hombergii. The lobes become smaller towards the end the body (fig. 82), and are totally absent on the last segment (fig. 85). The condition described seems to be general with this species in regards to the side-supplements. But a few specimens, which in all other matters are like this species, offer in this respect such important differences (as those which fig. 78, 79, and 80 show) that there is doubt about whether they should be considered as variants of this species or whether they should be looked on as distinct species. This quesion can not be answered without an investigation of a larger number of specimens than I have had opportunity to do.

Some of the bristles are larger, flat, a little curved and on the convex side provided with (fig. 80a) (sic; misprint for 81a: SK), sawlike teeth, others are smaller, straight and harilike (fig. 80b) (ibid: SK).

(p. 195) The color, as with all species of this genus, is shining white, only the furrows running lengthwise are brownish-red.

According to Fabricius it lives in holes which it makes in the sand so close to the shore that it can be caught at low tide.

Specimens are sent from the largest part of Greenland's coast.

Nereis caeca O. Fabr. has been considered an Aonis by Savigny and later also by Audouin and Milne Edwards. But it is without question that the species here described is the same as Nereis caeca, thus N. caeca is a Nephtys. The main difference between them is that it is pictured with two tail-threads by Fabricius, but one will hardly be wrong if one counts one of them a mistake. Nephtys caeca is easily separated from N. Hombergii by the lack of cirrus superior, by a much smaller space between the dorsal and ventral fins, and by the shape of the knotlike part of the ventral fin. This part is not pointed but rounded.

Note: Plate VI fig. 73 shows the first part of the body of this species opened from the ventral side to show the proboscis when it isn't protruded. The latter part of the proboscis (a) is formed by four very thick layers of muscle while the first part is made up of a thin membrane which is folded together under three strong muscles (c) which engineer the protrusion by contracting. A long food-canal (d) leads from the proboscis into the intestines. On top of this lies a strong layer of muscles (b). From the upper part of this layer muscles go out in a crosswise position.

Nephtys longoseetosa (sic) Örsd. fig. 75-76

Parte lamellosa pinnae superioris triangulari aeque longa ac parte setigera, cirro superiore nullo, spatio inter pinnae altitudinem pinnae inferioris subvincente, parte lamellosa pinnae inferioris horizontali breviore parte setigera subacuminata, setis capillaribus confertis ter longioribus pinnis.

(p. 196) This species is seen to be different from the previously described one at the first glance by larger incisions between the rings and by very longer bristles, which form something like a broad frame around the whole body.,

The length of the body is about three inches, the width three lines. It consists of 130-140 flattened segments. The head has the same shape as in N. caeca but is comparatively a little larger (fig. 76).

The dorsal lobe (fig. 75) is almost triangular and has the same length as the fin on which it sits. The gills and the ventral bristle-bearing part of the fin are somewhat pointed, nearly as in N. caeca. The bristles are hairlike, twice as long as the fins, and rather lightly collected.

The color of the specimens kept in spirits is a bluish-brown.

I have only seen two rather poorly preserved specimens which were sent from Godthaab.

Glycera capitata Örsd. fig. 87-88, 90-94, 96, 99

Lumbricus capitatus? Fauna groenl. p. 279

Segmentis pinnas gerentibus simplicibus, pinnis et cirris et ligula branchiali destitutis trilobis brevibus (aeque altis ac longis), lobis conicis acuminatis, mamilla parva in utroque latere segmentorum a pinnis valde remota, setis prominulis.

The body's length is about six inches and its width four lines. It is more pointed at the tail than in front, and has 140-150 segments supporting fins and just as many without fins. The segments without fins sit between the fin-supporting ones are are smaller than them. The dorsal side is very arched, the ventral side, on the contrary, is flat with a furrow in the middle.

The head consists of a long ring at the base of ten much shorter rings. It is equipped with four very small feelers (fig. 99).

(p. 197) The fins are just as wide as they are long and divided into three pointed branches, of which on middle rings the two sit at the end and one at the base of the fin (fig. 93). On the last rings, to the contrary, all the patches sit at the end of the fins (fig. 94). On the side of the ring far above the fin sits a papilla, which perhaps may be considered as a rudimentary gill. The bristles are needle-shaped (fig. 87). The presence of two needles and two groups of bristles show that there really are two fins, which have grown together into one. The last segment has two lancet-shaped blades (fig. 96).

The color is reddish-brown.

There are specimens sent down from several ports on Greenland.

It is not without doubts that I refer this species to Lumbricius capitatus O. Fabr., when that species, according to the description, is different in several respects. It would, however, be remarkable if Fabricius should have been unacquainted with a species that is so common on Greenland as this Glycera seems to be.

Note: Plate VII fig. 90-92 show specimens of Glycera capitata opened from the ventral side to show the structure of the proboscis and the intestinal canal. The proboscis hardly reaches such a length in relation to the body in any other genus. It occupies over a third of the body's length. The first part of the proboscis (fig. 91a) consist of a very strong membrane mad eup of parallel muscles, and it is somewhat longer than the last part (b). This last part consists of a thicker membrane, encloses four jaws and has above four triangular blind (? false: SK) pockets (n), perhaps saliva-glands. The food-canal has about the same length as the lower part ofthe proboscis, but lies in folds as long as the proboscis isn't protruded (c). The intestinal canal is an even canal without any (? Indsnöringen: SK) widened or contracted portions. It tapers gradually in thickness towards the end. If one lifts up the intestinal canal it is seen to be fastened to the dorsal side by a large number of muscles of which the first ones are very long and reaches from the beginning of the intestinal cnala about the 38th segment to the 22nd segment to which the muscle is fastened with the other end. The protrusion happens by pushing the latter part of the proboscis up into the first part by a muscle (m)

(p. 198) which is fastened in one end to the mouth-opening and in the other to the end of the first part of the proboscis. The proboscis is protruded through the mouth-opening. At the same time the food canal is folded out and also the intestine is lead so far forward that the first part of the food canal comes to lie at the mouth opening and both parts of the proboscis outside the mouth-opening (fig. 90).

Glycera setosa Orsd. fig. 89, 95, 97

Segmentis pinnas gerentibus ex duobus minoribus compositis, pinnis et cirris et ligula branchiali destitutis quadrilobis elongatis (duplo longioribus quam altis), tribus lobis conicis obtusis, quarto multo breviore rotundato, mamilla parva in quoque latere segmentorum a pinnis valde remota, setis productis.

The length of the body is about 4 inches and the width about two lines. The number of foot-supporting segments is 120-125. The shape of the body is about the same as in G. capitata, but comparatively wider in the tail-end. Besides the ring which separates those supporting the feet those latter are in themselves divided into two segments so that the number of the segments are actually three times the number of the feet-supporting segments.

The last part of the head (fig. 97) is formed by two larger rings while its first part is formed of eight smaller rings. They all have a little papilla on each side. The four feelers are a little longer than in G. capitata but not as pointed.

The fins (fig. 95) are about twice as long as wide. In the end they are divided into four parts, three almost coneshaped and one wider and shorter patch (a). There is a small papilla far above the fins as in the previously described species.

The bristles, of which there are about 20 in one and 40 in the other, reach very far out. They have the same shape as in (p. 199) G. capitata. The tail-threads were lacking in the two specimens ( examined. The specimens were sent down from Godthaab.

The color of the specimens kept in spirits is a brownish-green.

5th Family. Ariciae.

Gen. Scoloplos Blainv. Dict. d. se. n. art., art. Ver. T. VII p. 493

Character Genericus Emendatus

Anterior corporis pars depressa, posterior semicylindrica; in illa utraque pinna lateralis, in hac dorsalis. Os inferius, anus terminalis. Cirri nulli. Ligula branchialis supra pinnam superiorem : dorsalis ultraque corporis extremitatem versus regulariter decrescens et demum evanescens. Setae omnes subulatae.

This genus stands in close relation to Aricia Sav., but for all that it is different from it in several important respects.

The body, for instance, is round in front and flattened at the tail end in Aricia, while the opposite condition exists in Scoloplos. But the most important difference is in the shape of one pair of fins on the first part of the body, which in Aricia is very distinct from the other fins and provided with pecular bristles. In Scoloplos, on the contrary, the bristles are (p. 200) almost similar in all fins. The difference in the front fins and the others is only that the nearer the head the more they are drawn from the dorsal side down in the sides of the body and the size of the papillae which sit at bundles of bristles decrease. (Compare figs. 107, 108, 109). The cirri are also absent in Scoloplos. Both these genera and also genus Spio are related to each other by the similarity in an otherwise very deviating condition, namely, that the ventral side in several respects takes on the same characteristics as the dorsal side of other genera in this order. The ventral side is arched and smooth while the dorsal side is flat. The fins as is usual do not sit closer to the ventral side but more on the dorsal side (fig. 107ab, 117ab), where the gills too are placed (fig. 107c, 117c). These peculiarities may be due to different conditions under which this animal lives. They either live in pipes or dug down in the mud. Examination of specimens which have been better preserved has clarified the error of my former contentions to me*. The mouth-opening is found on the flat side and that it was really the ventral side.

* Kroyers Tidsskrift 4. Bind 2. Haefte.

Scoloplos quadricuspida Örsd. fig. 106-110.
Nais quadricuspida Fauna groenl. p. 315
Naineris quadricpida Blainv. op. cit. p. 490
Scoloplos minor Örsd**) Kroyers naturhist. Tidsskrift. 4. Bind 2. Haefte.

** I have earlier overlooked the fact that O. Fabricius description of Nais quadricuspida coincides with this Scoloplos and I think it best to change the name minor to quadricuspida.

Capite globoso, in segmentis anterioribus utraque pinna papillis instructa, in posterioribus pinna inferiore minutissima rotundata pinna superiore multo majore acuminata, appendicibus caudalibus quatuor filiformibus.

(p. 201) The body is 2-1/2 inches long and 1-1/2 lines wide and somethat flattend in front but otherwise round. Thinner towards the tail than in front and it is made up of 120-130 very short segments (fig. 110).

The head has two rings. The first one is spherical and the other cone-shaped (fig. 106). On the second ring (fig. 109) the fins consist of two small papillae on each side of a bundle of bristles. On the twelfth segment which is not so flattened the fins are situated higher up on the dorsal side and have about the same appearance as in the middle of the body (fig. 107), but are a little smaller. The ventral fin consists of a very short rounded papillae (a) while the dorsal fin is much larger and pointed (b). The gills have aboutthe same shape but are twice as large and provided with ( ?Fimrehaar: SK) rather short hairs at the edges (c).

The bristles are thin and pointed, provided with cross-streaks and oval knots on one side (fig. 111). In the first fifteen segments there are besides these bristles some short and cut-off bristles.

The last segment is much longer than the others and has four threalike supplements (fig. 106).

The color of the specimens kept in spirits is dark brown.

Specimens are sent from all harbors on Greenland's coast.

Scoloplos armiger Blainv. fig. 116, 117, 118
Lumbricus armiger Zool. Dan. T. 22

Capite conico acuminato, in anterioribus segmentis modo pinna inferiore papillo instructa, in posterioribus pinna inferiore elongata apice furcata, pinna superiore minore acuminata appendicibus caudalibus nullis.Of this species I have only seen the first part of one specimen from Greenland, but I am acquainted with it from our own shores (p. 202) where it is rather common so that I dare include it here with certainty. It is different from the preceedings species by the above diagnosis.

Gen. Spio O. Fabr.

Corpus teretiusculum filiforme pellucidum, caput conicum in rostrum abbreviatum productum, oculorum paribus tribus et appendicibus tentacularibus duobus filiformibus longissimis bassi affixis praeditum, oris apertura infera vel subterminalis. Os parum exsertile absque maxillis. Pinna superior setis uncinatis vel capillaribus, inferior setis capillaribus instructa, branchia ligulata margine ciliis obsita dorsalis introrsa. Cauda quadrifurcata.

This genus has not yet received a place in the classification. Audouin and Edwards thought that it was closest to Syllis, but they did not know any species from their own studies. It is so closely related to Scoloplos that the presence of the long arms with which it lays hold of its food (?Fangearme; fange = to catch & arme = arms; SK) is the only characteristic which separates these genera. Two related genera which I know from our shores will together with this one come to form a new family which will stand in the same relation to Ariciae as Naides to Terricolae*. Despite that I have not seen specimens from Greenland of these two species I will give the diagnosis of them with the assumption that they are the same that I know from our own coasts as they confirm to Fabricius' description.

* See Kröyers' Tidsskrift 3 Bind: Örsted conspectus Naidum & cet.

(p. 203) Spio seticornis Fabr.
Nereis seticornis Fauna groenl. p. 306
Spio seticornis Schriften der naturf. Fr. z. Berlin, T. VI

Duabus oculorum seriebus parallelis, appendicibus tentacularibus apicem versus non attenuatis, segmentis absque punctis nigris, branchiis ligulatis in medio corpore maximis utramque extremitatem versus evanescentibus.

Spio filicornis Fabr.
Nereis filicornis Fauna groenl. p. 307
Spio filicornis Schriften d. naturf. Fr. zu Berlin. T. VI

Duabus oculorum seriebus antice divergentibus postice convergentius, appendicibus tentacularibus apiceum versus attenuatis, singuli segmenti margine posteriore punctis 4 nigris notato, branchiis ligulatis in anteriore corpore maximis, medium versus evanescentibus.

Gen. Ophelia Sav.

Character genericus emendatus.

Corpus teres antice acuminatum postice truncatum. Caput nullum distinctum. Os inferum. Duo setarum fasciculi (pinnae) in omnibus segmentis ligulaque branchialis in mediis vel in omnibus. Cirri nulli. Anus terminalis papillarum serie instructus.

This species has been very poorly known and its whole organization comprehended erroneously. The mouth-opening (p. 204) has been mistaken for a __________ (? Gadbor: SK) and thought to lie on the dorsal side. The mouth was thought to be at the end of the body and the dorsal side considered to be the ventral side and inversely. The pointed part of the body is the front part. The mouth-opening is on the ventral side and the _______(? Gadboret) is located in the cut-off end of the body. It is not easy to understand how by examining the external form of the body one can understand its structure in other ways. An anatomical examination also shows (fig. 105), by the mouth-opening the mouth-cavity (a), which at the base is provided with a long blind sack that is twisted at the end (b, perhaps a salivary gland), and goes over into the uniform intestinal-canal (c) which is enclosed in large liver. The nerve-string is also found on the side of the body which had been taken for the dorsal side but which in reality is the ventral side.

Ophelia bicornis Sav.? fig. 104-5, 115, 116, 121
Savigny's systeme p. 38
Aud. & Edw. op. cit. p. 267. Tab. V B.f.7-9.

Segmentis 36-38, singulo ex annulis 5-6 vix conspicuis composito, ligulis branchialibus in segmento 11mo-30mo, margine interiore duobus prominentiis praeditis, segmentis posterioribus absque mamillis, papillarum 14 analium duobus intermediis ceteris multo majoribus.

The body is round, cone-shaped and pointed in front, and has an abrupt tail. It is one inch three lines long and from two to three lines wide. It consists of 38 to 39 which are only slightly different from each other. The four or five last ones are very short. Each of the larger segments consists again of six smaller ones which are only seen with difficulty by the

--------- (?Luppen: SK). On the dorsal side is a broad longitudinal stripe which has a furrow in the middle. The head or the first segment is pointed and cone-shaped. The mouth-opening is a cross-fissure which lies straight in line with the first bundle of bristles (fig. 115).

(p. 205) The fins have two bundles of bristles. There are 18-20 larger and smaller straight bristles int he dorsal fin, and in the ventral fin there are 10-12 curved, hairlike bristles. On the 12th to the 32nd segments is on each a gill sitting straight over the dorsal fin. The gill has two rounded projections on the inside edge (fig. 116). _______ (?Gadboret) is at the tail very large and equipped with twelve small and two large rounded projections which sit in the middle by the side of each other (fig. 121). The color is shining grey. The gills are brownish.

The specimens are sent from Godthaab.

Ophelia mamillata Örsd. fig. 103, 112, 114, 119-120.

Segmentis 25-28, singulo ex annulis 3 vix conspicuis composito, ligulis branchialibus in segmentis omnibus, margine interiore absque prominentiis, singulis segmentis posterioribus duobus parius mamillarum lateralium instructis, papillis analibus 11 minutissimis omnibus ejusdem longitudinis et secundo quoque ejusdem latitudinis.

The shape and size of the body is in general like O. bicornis (fig 103). The 27-28 segments of the body are much more plainly distinguishable from each other than in the previous species. The 20 first segments are eeach divided into three smaller ones. The following ones are only equipped with an incision which gradually decreases in size towards the tail so that after the 3rd last ring the two last ones are completely smooth.

On figures 103 and 114 there are only gills pictured on the middle segments. The drawings were made after specimens from Greenland, but I have later found specimens of this species in Oresund which had gills on all its segments.

(p. 206) The gills are comparatively somewhat larger at the base (fig. 119) than in the ones in the previous species. The _______ (?Gadboret) is equipped with 11 papillae of the same length. Six of these are twice as wide as the five which sit between every other one of these (fig. 112).

The color is the same as in O. bicornis.

Ophelia mamillata var. crassa fig. 114.

This variety is different from the previous one in that the body is comparatively much shorter and thicker. Specimens are sent from Godthaab.

Gen. Cirratulus Lamarck.

Cirratulus borealis Lam. fig. 98, 102
Lumbricus cirratus Mül. Fauna groenl. p. 281
Cirratulus Medua (Cir. fuscescens et. Cir. flavescens Johnst.) Johnston loc. cit. V. II. p. 71

Corpore tereti utrinque aequaliter alternuato, tribus segmentis anterioribus absque appendicibus duplo longioribus quam ceteris, in superficie quarti serie branchiarum, setis utriusque pinnae filiformibus.

The body is 2-1/2 inches long and 2 to 2-1/2 lines wide, round, and decreasing similarly in width towards both ends. It has 50-60 segments, which are not plainly separately from each other.

The head (the first segment) is cone-shaped and rounded in front. A large numer of eye-points on each edge of the head's dorsal side build a connected row. The mouth-opening is almost at the end of the body (in front: SK). The two next segments are twice as long as the other and have no supplements. On the 3rd segment on the contrary is a row of threadlike gills of the same length and shape as the ones of which there is a pair on each of the following segments

(p. 207) straight above the dorsal fin (fig. 98). There are 10-14 thin, hairlike bristles in the dorsal fin while only 6-8 in the ventral fin.

As this is the same species which exists at several points on our coasts, I can report that the color is reddish-brown or sometimes blood-red.

Specimens are sent from most ports on Greenland's coast.

Arenicola piscatorum Lamark.
Lumbricus papillosus Fauna groenl. p. 279.

Specimens of this species are sent down from separate points of Greenland's coast as far as to Umanak. They are striking through their large size. They sometimes reach a length of 12 to 16 inches and width of 12 to 18 lines. It is the same species which exists by Denmark's and all European coasts.


Survey of the Annulata dorsibranchiata of Greenland

Of the Annelida, which have been earlier described from Greenland, 26 belong to this order. These are enumerated here together with synonyms of them used in this treatise.

Fabricius' speciesSynonyms
Lumbricus marinusArenicola piscatorum
Lumbricus capitatusGlycera capitata
Lumbricus cirratusCirratulus borealis
Lumbricus papillosusArenicola piscatorum
Nereis noctilucaPolybostrichus sp.?
Nereis diversicolorNereis diversicolor
Nereis verrucosaNereis pelagica
Nereis armillarisSyllis armillaris
Nereis incisaIoida sp.?
Nereis aphroditoidesNereis sp.?
Nereis viridisEulalia viridis
Nereis coeruleaPhyllodoce sp.?
Nereis maculataPhyllodoce maculata
Nereis flavaEteone flava
Nereis longaEteone longa
Nereis roseaPsammathe puncata?
Nereis prismaticaPolybostrichus sp.

P. 209)

Nereis bifronsPolybostrichus sp.
Nereis coecaNephtys coeca
Nereis seticornisSpio seticornis
Nereis filicornisSpio filicornis
Aphrodita cirrataLepidonote cirrata
Aphrodita punctataLepidonote punctata
Aphrodita scabraLepodinote (sic) scabra
Aphrodita longaPolynoe longa
Aphrodita minutaPholoe minuta
Nais quadricuspidaScoloplos quadricuspida.

Of these 27 species there are ten of which I have not seen any specimens from Greenland, but four or five of these, namely: Nereis diversicolor, Aphrodita punctata, Spio seticornis, Spio filicornis and perhaps Nereis rosea, I know from Denmark. There are then only five species, namely: Aphrodita longa, Nereis noctiluca, N. aphroditoides, N. coerulea, and N. prismatica or bifrons, which I am not familiar with from personal investigation. But these can, I think, with certainty, be conducted to familiar species, as the above implies. If the twelve new species from Greenland's fauna which are described above are added together with 11-12 species, which, thanks to the courtesy of Captain-Lieutenant Holböll and Hr. Möller, I have had opportunity to study, to these 26 Fabrician species the fauna of Greenland will count 49-50 species of this Order. The 11-12 species of Holböll's and Möller's were studied after this treatise was sent to the Royal Scientific Society.

In order to show what relation the number of of these species stand to the numbers of species from other regions I give the survey of the number of species from three countries in the table below. These countries lie between diferent latitudes and can be considered as having been equally well explored. They are France, Denmark, and Greenland.

p. 210)

GreenlandDenmark France
Aphroditaceae58 11
Amphinomaceae1X 1
Euniceae21 10
Nereideae3224 21
Ariciae911 6
PeripatiiXX X
ChaetopteriiX1 X
Arenicolae11 2
5046 51

The above shows that Greenland in respect to the number of species does not lag behind France and has specimens of the same families as France. Nereideae and Ariciae seem to be more prevalent in Greenland while Aphroditaceae and Euniceae are more abundant in the temperate zone. Amphinomaceae and Peripatii (the most developed) may be considered as tropical families.

The following 15 species: Polynoe cirrata, Polynoe punctata, Lumbrineris fragilis, Nereis pelagica, Nereis diversicolor, Psamathe punctata, Syllis armillaris, Eulalia viridis, Scoloplos armiger, Spio filicornis, Spio seticornis, Ciratulus borealis, Ophelia mamillata, O. nov. sp., Arenicola piscatorum, are common in Denmark and Greenland. But it is only three species from Greenland which also appear on the coasts of France, namely, Eulalia viridis, Ophelia bicornis, and Arenicola piscatorum.

It is already noticed about the individual distinctions of the polaric (sic) specimens that several species attain a much greater size than they do in southern seas in which they appear. This condition is very plainly noticeable in Arenicola piscatorum and Polynoe cirrata, but holds also for many species of other classes of ocean animals. One (p. 211) may consider these animals to have their real home in the high north. It should also be noticed that most of the species, which exist both at Denmark and Greenland, exist closer to the shore of Greenland while in Denmark they are found only in deeper waters. This is probably because they find more salty water below than on the surface. That they do not thrive as well by our coasts, that is, do not attain such a large size, depends, I should think, mostly on that our waters are less salty.

[Plates not included yet, though these might be available later. Please see original text]

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Maintained by Geoff Read

Online April 1998, last update 1 March 2000.